Yakov Blumkin

Picture of Yakov Blumkin

Place of birth: Odessa

Citizenship: Russia


revolutionary Odessa

From Odessa proletarian family. In 1913 he graduated from the Jewish elementary school, which was led by a well-known Jewish writer - "the grandfather of Jewish literature" Mendele Sforim. Schooling was free of charge, at the expense of the Jewish community. It was the first fruits of the Talmud, Hebrew, Yiddish and Russian.

Blyumkin wrote: In the context of Jewish provincial poverty, squeezed between the national oppression and social deprivation, I grew up, courtesy of his own children`s fate.

In 1914 he worked as electrician in the tram depot, the theater, in the cannery and Avrich Izrailsona brothers. Brother Leo was an anarchist, and his sister Rosa Social-Democrat. Jacob older brothers - Isaiah and Leo were journalists Odessa newspapers, and his brother Nathan has received recognition as a playwright (alias "Bazilevsky"). He took part in the detachments of Jewish self-defense against pogroms in Odessa. Blyumkin joined the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. As agitator "for the elections to the Constituent Assembly," he is in August - October 1917 was in the Volga region.

In November 1917 he joined the detachment of sailors who participated in the battles with the part of the Ukrainian Central Rada Central Rada see .. During the revolutionary events in Odessa in 1918, he took part in the expropriation of the property of the State Bank. According to rumors, some appropriated. In January 1918, Blyumkin, together with Moses Vinnitsa (Bear "Jap" cm.,) Has been actively involved in the formation of Odessa 1st Volunteer of the iron group. Part of the credibility of the revolutionary dictator of Odessa Mikhail Muravyov.

In Odessa Blyumkin acquainted more with the poet A. Erdmann, a member of the "Union of protection of Fatherland and Freedom" and a British spy. Perhaps Erdmann and he gave Bliumkin future career in the KGB. Already in April 1918 Erdman disguised as the leader of the Lithuanian anarchists Birze puts control of the armed anarchist groups of Moscow and at the same time working for the KGB, gathering information about the German influence in Russia to the Entente.

Moscow: The first KGB

In May 1918 he came from Odessa to Moscow. Leaders of the Party of the Left SRs in the Cheka sent Bliumkin head of the department for the fight against international espionage. Since June 1918 years- head of the department of counterintelligence department to monitor the protection of embassies and their possible criminal activity. Basically Blyumkin engaged "German spies."

The murder of Mirbach

Maria Spiridonova invite the President of the Party of the Left SRs to assassinate the German Ambassador Mirbach. Appearing with Nikolai Andreyev at the German Embassy on 6 July 1918, he opened fire, but only wounded the ambassador and he was injured. Andreev threw a bomb that killed Mirbach, hoisted Bliumkin on, carried it out of the embassy. The attempt was the beginning for the Left SR uprising the next day. Before you attempt Blyumkin wrote a letter in which he explained his motives.

"Black Hundreds-Semites accused Jews since the beginning of the war in Germanophilism, and now lay on the Jews responsible for the Bolshevik policy and for a separate peace with the Germans. Therefore, Jew protest against the betrayal of the Allies and Russia by the Bolsheviks at Brest-Litovsk is of particular importance. I as a Jew, as a socialist, I take the act of committing is this protest. "

Later, in a conversation with his wife Lunacharsky - Natalia Lunacharskii-Rozenel and her cousin Tatiana Satz, Blyumkin admitted that a plan to assassinate Mirbach knew and Dzerzhinsky, and Lenin, no other historical evidence of this "recognition" is not, although the logic of slander enemies Bolsheviks no limit to the extent that they are themselves accused of the killing, despite the obvious political difficulties, he immediately followed it - for example, the German government asked the Bolsheviks to consent to the delivery and deployment of the battalion of German soldiers for the protection of the German Embassy in Moscow that was a direct ugrozoyvvedeniya foreign military units in the heart of the young Socialist Russia. For the murder of Mirbach Blyumkin was rightly sentenced to death by a military tribunal. But Trotsky has made to the death penalty was replaced with "atonement in the battle for the protection of the revolution", he took him to his headquarters where Blyumkin, "atone" safely "prokantovalsya" All civil war chief bodyguard Narkomvoenmor. Then his boss, he was sent to study, after which was re-transferred to the GPU organs.

In 1920, interparty Blyumkin appeared before the court in cases related to the Left SR uprising, which included anarchists, Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, maximalists, Borotbists. Friendly Court headed Karelin - a former member of the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR, the mystic, the leader of Russian anarchist communists cm .. The trial Bliumkin lasted two weeks, but has not made a final decision.

in the Civil War

Since September 1918 Blyumkin Ukraine. Unbeknownst leadership of the Left SRs, he sneaks into Moscow, and from there to Belgorod - on the border with Ukraine. In November of the same year, at the time of a general uprising against the Ukrainian Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky and the Austro-German occupation, Blyumkin finds his party comrades in Kiev and is included in the SR underground work. He is involved in preparation of a terrorist attack against the Hetman Skoropadsky, and attempted to Field Marshal of the German occupation forces in Ukraine Eichhorn.

On the instructions of the Central Executive Committee was involved in the preparation of (the forces of Ukrainian anarchist Makhno) attempt on Admiral Kolchak. The need for this has disappeared due to the arrest of the Left SRs Kolchak in Irkutsk.

In April 1919 Blyumkin turned himself in Cheka in Kiev. Special Investigation Commission, in consultation with the Bureau of the Central Executive Committee and with the approval of Felix Dzerzhinsky, decided amnesty Bliumkin. He gave many of his former comrades, and was sentenced to death, the Left SRs. On it made 3 attempt, Blyumkin was wounded and fled from Kiev.

Mission in Iran

Bliumkin sent to Persia to communicate with the revolutionary government of Kuchuk Khan. Blyumkin involved in the overthrow of Kuchuk Khan and supports Ehsanullah Khan, supported by local "Left" Communists. After the coup, organized the Communist Party of Persia, became a member of the Communist Party of Persia and the Commissioner of Staff of the Red Army of the Soviet Republic of Gilan (see., Cm2.) In the north of Iran. By participating in the battles, Blyumkin directs the defense of the city of Anzali on the advancing troops of the Shah of Iran. Blyumkin was a delegate from Iran at the First Congress of the oppressed peoples of the East convened by the Bolsheviks in Baku.

Executions in Crimea

There are reported to be involved in mass executions Bliumkin white officers in the Crimea in late November - December 1920, after the defeat of the army of Baron Wrangel. In 1920-21 Blyumkin - Chief of Staff of the 79th Brigade, and later - the brigade commander had planned and carried out punitive actions against the rebels of the Lower Volga peasants in the suppression of the uprising and Elan Antonov in Tambov. In the autumn of the same year Blyumkin commanded the 61st Brigade, aimed at fighting against the troops of Baron Ungern.

Favorite Dzerzhinsky

Back in Moscow Blyumkin published a book about Dzerzhinsky and became his favorite in the Cheka. On the personal recommendation of Dzerzhinsky in 1920 joined the RKP (b). Sent to study at the Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army on the Eastern Department, which serves employees of embassies and intelligence agents. The Academy Blyumkin added to the knowledge of Hebrew knowledge of Turkish, Arabic, Chinese, Mongolian language, extensive military, economic, political knowledge.

Blyumkin and poets?

In 1920 Blyumkin closely converged to the circle of poets and writers. Friends with Yesenin and Khodasevich, met with Mayakovsky, and Shershenevich Mariengof (cm.). Blyumkin was one of the founders of poetic semi-anarchist `Association freethinkers ", a regular circle Imagist.

According to the memoirs of the poet Vladislav Khodasevich, Yesenin once brought into the circle of bohemian Bliumkin KGB in a leather jacket. As always, the poet Sergei Yesenin sought to impress others ... Nodding ladies on Bliumkin Yesenin offered exalted lady: "Do you want to see how shot in the Cheka? I do this to you through Bliumkin one minute I will build. "

Soon Yesenin found himself in the role of victim Bliumkin. A year before the poet`s death, while in the South Caucasus, "good fellow," jealous of his wife to Sergei Yesenin, the poet began to threaten gun. The threat of violence was so real, that the poet hastened to leave Tbilisi. It is known that Yesenin committed suicide in the hotel "Angleterre" at the end of December 1925. But there is another version of his death, the poet killed security officers under the direction of ubiquitous Bliumkin on Cheka secret apartment, then dragged the corpse to the hotel by faking a suicide. Even the well-known verses Esenina dying, about who said that they are written in blood, possibly written in the name of the poet Blyumkin, who himself wrote poetry ...

Blyumkin was friends with Karl Radek.

adjutant Trotsky`s Defense Commissariat

In 1922, after graduating from the Academy Blyumkin becomes an official aide People`s Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, LD Trotsky. I served very important assignments and converged closely with the People`s Commissar. Blyumkin edited the first volume of the book program of Trotsky, "How was armed revolution" (published in 1923). Trotsky wrote Blyumkin "Revolution prefers young lovers."

Back to the OGPU

In the autumn of 1923, on the proposal of Dzerzhinsky Blyumkin back employee of the Foreign Department of the OGPU (cm.). At the same time introduced into the Comintern for secret work. On the instructions of the Chairman of the Comintern G. Zinoviev in connection with the maturing of the revolution in Germany he was sent there to instruct and supply of German revolutionary weapon.

South Caucasus

In 1924, he is working in the Caucasus political representative of the OGPU and a member of the Transcaucasian Cheka. At the same time he is the assistant commander of the OGPU troops in Transcaucasia and authorized Narkomvneshtorg to combat smuggling. Blyumkin involved in the suppression of the peasant uprising in Georgia. Commanded by storm the city of Bagram Tepe, which was captured by the Persian forces in 1922. Participates in the Boundary Commission for the settlement of disputes between the Soviet Union, Turkey, Persia. Obviously, at the same time Blyumkin who knew Oriental languages, secretly he travels to Afghanistan, where trying to find a connection in the Pamirs to the mystic sect of Ismaili living god Aha, who lived at that time in Pune ([India]). With Ismaili caravan "dervish" Blyumkin penetrated into India. But there he was arrested by the British police. From prison Blyumkin safely fled, taking with him the secret maps, and documents an English agent.

The Dictator Mongolia

In 1926, a representative of the OGPU Blyumkin aims and main instructor of State Security of the Republic of Mongolia. He carried out special missions in China, Tibet and India. In 1927 he was recalled to Moscow due to friction with the Mongolian leadership and desertion chief of the Eastern sector of the ISE George Agabekova. After fleeing to the West Agabeyov declassified information about Bliumkin activities in Mongolia.

Constantinople and Palestine

In 1928 Blyumkin - OGPU resident in Constantinople. Responsible for the entire Middle East. On the instructions of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) he organized in Palestine resident network. It operates under the guise of the pious owner of a laundry in Jaffa Gurfinkel, then under the guise of a Jewish merchant Azerbaijani Sultanova. Blyumkin recruited Viennese antiquarian Jacob Erlich, and with its help arranged the residency, under the conspiratorial secondhand bookshop. Blyumkin established through the channels of the Cheka removal of Jewish manuscripts and antiques from the USSR. OGPU has done a great job in the western regions of the USSR to collect and seize the ancient scrolls of the Torah, the Talmud, 330 works of medieval Jewish literature. To prepare Blumkin material for successful trading in Jewish towns Proskurov, Berdichev, Medzhibozh. Bratslav, Tulchin headed the OGPU expedition with the purpose of removing the old Hebrew books. Blyumkin traveled to Odessa, Rostov-on-Don, in the village of Ukraine, where the libraries surveyed synagogues and Jewish houses of worship. Books were removed even from public libraries and museums. In Palestine Blyumkin met with Leopold Trepper, the future leader of the anti-fascist organizations and the Soviet intelligence network in Nazi Germany, known as the "Red Orchestra". He was deported by the British Mandate authorities. In the same period in Palestine gained experience in special operations at least the legendary Jacob Serebryansky (Lavretsky) last active SR, became assistant Bliumkin through illegal residency INO OGPU

Return to Moscow

In 1929, under orders of Stalin tried unsuccessfully to assassinate the former Stalin`s secretary Bazhanov, who fled abroad. Blyumkin the summer of 1929 is coming to Moscow to report on the Middle East operation. His report to members of the Party Central Committee on the situation in the Middle East endorsed by the Central Committee members and the head of the OGPU V. Menzhinsky, which even the location of the sign invites Bliumkin at home dinner. Blyumkin successfully passes another party cleaning, thanks to the excellent characteristics of the chief of the Foreign Department of the OGPU Trilisser. The Party Committee of the OGPU Bliumkin characterized as a "trusted friend".

Agent Trotsky?

However Blyumkin secretly liaised with Trotsky expelled from the Soviet Union. Blyumkin Trotsky told his doubts in the correctness of Stalin`s policy, and asked to give him advice - whether to remain in the OGPU, or go into hiding. Trotsky urged Bliumkin that working in the GPU, it is more useful to the opposition. Blyumkin emphasized their loyalty to the opposition, but Trotsky was puzzled: how could a Trotskyist, the views of which have been known to stay in the OGPU organs. This question Blyumkin answered as follows: authorities considered it indispensable expert in sabotage. It is possible that Blyumkin established links with Trotsky on the instructions of the GPU as a provocateur, seeking to win the full confidence of Trotsky. He fulfilled his commission in Moscow in communication with representatives of the opposition of Trotsky in the Soviet Union. At the same time Blyumkin very interested in Trotsky as a connoisseur of conspiracy, sabotage, as a connoisseur of the personnel of the Soviet embassies, consulates, military attache.

The arrest and execution

He was arrested on the denunciation of Trotsky`s mistress ties. He tried to flee abroad. He was arrested after a chase with shooting on the streets of Moscow. Bliumkin tortured and beaten during interrogation. Menzhinsky and Berry voted for the death penalty, Trilisser - against. The warder opened the door of the room in which there was Blyumkin. The prisoner was taken to the basement. He knew that was the end of his short turbulent life. According to one version Blyumkin cried "Long live Comrade Trotsky!". Another sang: "Arise, ye branded, world hunger and the slaves!".

Blyumkin was shot Nov. 3, 1929.

Evaluation Bliumkin identity

In 1920 Blyumkin was one of the most famous people of Soviet Russia. Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Editor Schmidt) has paid him more than thirty lines. He dedicated poems Sergei Yesenin, Nikolay Gumilyov, Vadim Shershenevich but Valentin Kataev in the story "is already written Werther" has given his hero, Nahum Fearless, its features and portrait similarity.

In modern texts about Bliumkin no one like him - he too does not fit the stereotypes of Russian, Soviet or post-Soviet, or Jewish, Zionist hero. With his characteristic are anachronisms: a terrorist, although at that time it would be called a subversive and it would not of a negative shade. However, the very career Bliumkin says that he was an extraordinary man, and the time in which he lived, should be judged by its own laws.