# Viktor Glushkov

Date of Birth: 08/24/1923

Age: 58

Place of birth: Rostov-on-Don

Citizenship: Russia

**Background**

Multifaceted talent Glushkov allowed him to get a brilliant scientific results of world significance in mathematics, cybernetics, computer science and programming, to create in these fields its own schools. In this paper, the characteristic of the most significant contributions made by Glushkov in the following areas:

the theory of topological groups and topological algebra in general;

theory of digital machines;

theory of programming and algorithmic algebra systems;

the theory of the design of electronic computers;

creation of computer technology, new architecture of computers and systems that control computers of wide application;

cybernetics as the science of the general laws, principles and methods of information processing and management in complex systems;

creation of the automated systems of control of technological processes and industrial plants;

development of bases of construction nationwide automated system of control of the national economy;

Paperless foundations of computer science.

Victor Glushkov was born August 24, 1923 in Rostov-on-Don in the family of a mining engineer. June 21, 1941 VM Glushkov with a gold medal graduated Secondary school number 1 in the city of Mines. The Great Patriotic War has destroyed the plans Glushkov enter the Physics Department of Moscow State University. Mother Glushkov was shot by the Nazis in the autumn of 1941. After the liberation of Mines Glushkov was mobilized and participated in the restoration of the coal mines of Donbass.

After the announcement of the fall 1943 enrollment of students in Novocherkassk Industrial Institute Glushkov he became a student of the Faculty of the Institute of heat engineering. There he studied for four years, has shown interest not only to the main subject - heat technology, as in the sciences of physics and mathematics cycle, with one five in the record book. Realizing the fourth year of study, that the Thermal profile of future work it will not satisfy, Glushkov decided to transfer to the Faculty of Mathematics at Rostov University. To this end, he passed all the exams as an external student for four years of a university course in mathematics and physics and became a student of the fifth course of the Rostov University. In the thesis work carried out under the leadership of famous mathematician Professor D. Mordukhai-VM Glushkov developed methods of calculation tables improper integrals to find inaccuracies in the existing tables, which have stood before the 10-12 editions. Defended a thesis in 1948, Glushkov was assigned to the Urals in one of the institutions associated with the nascent nuclear industry then. Arriving with his wife VM Papkova (a month before graduation, Victor M. married) to the Ural, Glushkov found that the Ministry of Higher Education has changed its purpose by giving in Novocherkassk Industrial Institute. However, back they could not because of lack of funds.

In Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg) Glushkov met Professor Chernikov, dean of the Faculty of Mathematics of the University of Sverdlovsk, and on his recommendation got a teaching job at the Forestry Institute (Ministry later confirmed this appointment, as the hunters go to the Urals among university graduates was a bit). Chernikov drew Glushkov to work in the field of group theory, help to quickly learn this new area of ??mathematics. In 1949, at the suggestion of Chernikov Glushkov he enrolled in correspondence postgraduate study Sverdlovsk University and by the end of 1950 prepared a thesis on "The theory of locally nilpotent torsion-free groups with the proviso break some chains subgroup." The thesis was defended by Glushkov in October 1951, he was appointed assistant professor. In 1956 overview report on the algebra section of the Third All-Union Mathematical Congress Chernikov he pointed out that a number of profound results Glushkov, can form the basis for further development of a broad locally nilpotent topological groups.

In 1952, attention Glushkov attracted Hilbert`s fifth problem associated with the theory of topological groups, which was staged the famous German mathematician in 1900 among the 23 largest and most complex mathematical problems. It is known that the solution to every problem Hilbert became a sensation in the world of science.

Above the solution of Hilbert`s fifth problem (if any Lie group is locally Euclidean topological group with a suitable choice of local coordinates), American scientists worked Gleason, Montgomery, Zippin, an outstanding Russian algebraist Mal`tsev. Some particular problems associated with this problem, to 1952 have been resolved. However, by this time a generalized Hilbert`s fifth problem was formulated in theory, topology, and Glushkov took for its decision. Above the main theorem for the generalized fifth problem of Hilbert Glushkov I have worked continuously for three years. Proving her Glushkov was the result of stronger than American scientists, and a simpler method that is best suited also for the study of normal (not generalized) of Hilbert`s fifth problem.

Solution of the generalized Hilbert`s fifth problem was the subject of his doctoral dissertation Glushkov on "Topological locally nilpotent groups", which he defended in 1955 at Moscow University, being seconded to doctoral studies leading specialist in higher algebra professor Kurosh .

These Glushkov mathematical results led him to a number of leading algebraists of the world, the solution of the generalized Hilbert`s fifth problem, the study of the structure and properties of locally compact groups and Lie, significantly develop the theory of topological groups and topological algebra in general.

Great influence on the work of VM Glushkov in the field of group theory and its formation as a mathematician had acquaintance correspondence with Academician AI Maltsev, a specialist in the theory of algebraic systems, prominent representative of the Russian school of mathematics who worked in the Ivanovo Pedagogical Institute, and then in Novosibirsk, at the Institute of mathematics of the Siberian Branch of the USSR.

Further scientific work of the Glushkov associated with the theory of computing, software, machines and automated control systems, is a testament to the fact that advances in these areas, based on a strong foundation of Russian mathematical schools.

In August 1956 Glushkov radically changed the scope of its activities by linking it with cybernetics, computer technology and applied mathematics. Since that time, VM Glushkov lived and worked in Kiev. There he directed the Laboratory of Computer Engineering and Mathematics, Institute of Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, previously created by SA Lebedev and known for its pioneering development of computers and SECM SESM. In 1957, VM Glushkov became director of the Computing Center of USSR Academy of Sciences with the rights of the research organization. Five years later, in December 1962 on the basis of the Computing Center of USSR Academy of Sciences was organized by the Institute of Cybernetics, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Its director was VM Glushkov.

The starting point for the work Glushkov in the theory of digital machines was the concept of the machine, entered the American mathematicians Kleene, Moore and other authors of the famous book "Automatic", which was released in 1956 in Princeton, edited by Shannon and McCarthy, and in the same year translated into Russian, edited by AA Lyapunov. At the very beginning of its work in this area Glushkov found much more elegant, algebraically simple and logically clear notion of Kleene machine and got all of the wedge.

Glushkov knew that because of its large community of automata theory can be applied to develop models of cybernetic systems in a variety of application areas. At a seminar on the theory of automata, organized by Glushkov, we discussed general questions of the theory and practical aspects of computer synthesis schemes "Kiev", which was designed in the laboratory then Glushkov. Participants of the workshop V. Kapitonov, AA Letichevsky et al. Have made further school core Glushkov in the field of digital computer design theory.

The basic idea of ??combining work on the digital machines was the ability to use an algebraic apparatus for representing such objects, what are the components of a computer, schemes and programs. VM Glushkovrazvil this idea and, most importantly, build the necessary mathematical tools and shows how the components of the computer can be represented by algebraic expressions. Another idea Glushkov was associated with the transformation of algebraic expressions. In addition, these display processes of transformation of the work of engineers and programmers of computer schemes and programs. This circumstance has allowed to find suitable model of computer components and manipulate them in the process of designing and manufacturing.

In 1961, the famous monograph Glushkov "Synthesis of Digital Automata" was published, later translated into English and published in the United States and other countries. Another important theoretical work "The abstract theory of automata" was published by Glushkov in 1961 in the journal "Successes of Mathematical Sciences." She created a foundation for the work on the theory of automata involving algebraic methods. Under the influence of this work VM Glushkovav Soviet theory of automata became engaged in many math-algebraists.

In 1964, for the series of works on the theory of automata VM Glushkovbyl awarded the Lenin Prize.

The value of these works can not be overestimated, as the use of the term "Machine" as a mathematical abstraction of the structure and processes occurring inside the computers, opened up entirely new possibilities in the technology of computers. Modern systems design automation computers everywhere are using these ideas.

In 1964, VM ??Glushkov was elected a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the Department of Mathematics (mathematics, including Computational Mathematics).

In the theory of programming and algorithmic algebra systems Glushkov was made a fundamental contribution in the form of a regular algebra with the Events.

These results were published by him in 1961 in the journal "Successes of Mathematical Sciences" and in 1965 in the journal "Cybernetics". the apparatus has been developed systems of algorithmic algebras (SAA), which is a dibasic algebraic system consisting of generators of the algebra of operators and triple-logical conditions. As part of the development of this theory by Glushkov it was anticipated by the concept of structured programming proposed by Dijkstra in 1968, and proved the fundamental theorem of regularization (reduction to a structured form) of an arbitrary algorithm, such as a program or firmware. Initially, the system of algorithmic algebras were used by Glushkov to describe the firmware. To this end, they were offered an abstract model of a computer showing the interaction of two machines - managing and operating. Driving automaton interaction adopted in an abstract model of a computer, it can be extended to arbitrary cybernetic systems that allows the formalization of their operation by the apparatus of algorithmic algebra systems. The above theorem Glushkov for regularization has not been timely noticed and understood, it was later blocked in the framework of structured programming.

The monograph Glushkov, GE Zeitlin and EL Yushchenko "Algebra, languages, programming", which contains an introduction to the theory of universal algebras based on the use of this device in theoretical programming, was published in 1974

It is important to stress that in connection with the research on the formalization of language, program verification and optimization at the junction of mathematical logic and the theory of programming in the mid-70s, a new direction for the algorithmic (software) Logic and logic processes. The prototype software propositional logic system of algorithmic algebras were investigated by Glushkov. Kyiv School (EL Yushchenko, GE Zeitlin, VN Redko and OE) developed this research in the direction of the axiomatization of algorithmic algebra systems as a basis schematology structured programming and versatile program logics.

CAA device was used to formalize the semantics of the language of the address (also developed school Glushkov in the framework of work on the automation of programming), in the development of targeted language "Dnepr-2", the model of bilateral parallel analyzer language Cobol to UCS, the components cross - software systems dedicated mini- and micro-computers in the UCS. "Analyst" software project has been proposed to prove the identities (theorems) in axiomatized CAA (GE Zeitlin - 1979). In 1979-1983 gg. Glushkov, GE Zeitlin, EL Yushchenko, VP Gritsay published their findings on the analysis and synthesis of parallel programs, multi-level structural design programs. It was developed a system of "MULTIPROTSESSIST" - structural synth algorithms and programs for their projects, issued on ultra-high-level language CAA implemented in 1981 in the EU DOS computers.

Further development of these results were obtained in the method of multi-level structural design classes of algorithms and programs (serial and parallel), which is based on the grammar of the structural design, combining the device with a parallel CAA hatchability mechanisms developed in the theory of language schools processors Glushkov. In order to provide integrated tools produce programs this school was proposed combination of methods of transformation (Ershov), inductive (YM Bardzin AI Brazma, EB Kinber) and deductive (EH Tyugu) synthesis software.

In Kiev Cyber ??Centre, which develops on the basis of the Institute of Cybernetics of NAS of Ukraine, development of school ideas Glushkov. There were obtained interesting results, which are a priority. It is above all the new math-based mechanisms in the development of algebra algorithms to describe distributed computing systems, as well as forward-looking software tools to meet the challenges of creating application software and hardware systems.

Ways to improve technology development programs Glushkov seen in the development of algebra programming languages, ie. E. Equivalent transformations of expressions of art in these languages. In this issue he put general mathematical and even philosophical sense, considering the creation of algebra language specific area of ??expertise as a necessary stage of its mathematization.

Comparing the numerical and analytical methods for solving problems of applied mathematics, Glushkov argued that the development of the common programming languages ??and the languages ??of algebra lead to the fact that the expressions in these languages ??(today`s computer software program) will become as familiar, clear and comfortable, what today are the analytical expressions. This actually disappear difference between the analytical and general algorithmic methods and computer models of the world will be the main source for the development of a new modern mathematics, as is happening now.

Modern computers can not be design without automation systems design work. The possibility of using computers in the design process of computer became real once in the early 60-ies have been established the relevant sections of the abstract and structural automata theory, will solve a number of problems that arise in the design of electronic circuits. Further development of computer design techniques require new technology, particularly the development of methods for the synthesis of the block. Fundamentals of computer design theory were laid down in Articles Glushkov, published in the "Cybernetics" magazine in 1965-1966 gg. and in the Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1967. It soon became clear that the effective use of computers in the design process is necessary to a complete solution of all problems arising in the design automation. The need to apply a systematic approach to computer CAD manifest when creating the third generation of computers.

In connection with the transition to the design of the computer of the fourth and subsequent generations in the early 70s by Glushkov, Yu Kapitonova and AA Letichevsky tended to merge with the design process of computer design and development of mathematical software.

On the basis of theoretical work in the Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics was created a language for describing algorithms and computer structures and methods of designing computers that have been implemented in a number of unique systems "project" ( "Project 1", "PROJECT EU", " PROJECT MIM "," PROJECT ERM "). The development of the experimental systems "PROJECT 1" drive the M-220 was completed in 1970. A more powerful system of "Project 2" was then implemented on the Two-machine complex M-220, BESM-6 advanced system peripherals. The total volume of the system, "Project 2" was 2 ppm of machine instructions. It represents the distribution of specialized software and hardware complex with its own operating system and specialized software system. For the first time in the world by Glushkov, AA Letichevsky, YV Kapitonova it was automated (and with optimization) stage algorithmic design. method of formalized technical jobs - a new technology design of complex software has been developed. Over time, the "Project" system were transferred to the EU and the computer became the prototype CAD and CAD computer LSI in many organizations of the former USSR.

The monograph Glushkov, Yu Kapitonova and AA Letychiv "Design automation computers", summarizing the experience of creating systems "PROJECT", was published in 1975

For his work on computer-aided design Glushkov, VP Derkach and V. Kapitonov in 1977 he was awarded the USSR State Prize.

In 1958, VM Glushkov suggested the idea of ??creating a universal machine control. The idea was realized in the managing machine of wide purpose (UMSHN) in record time - three years. The leaders work to create UMSHN were Glushkov and B.N.Malinovsky (aka - the chief designer of the machine). Basic principles of construction machines, articulated Glushkov and B.N.Malinovskim: semiconductor electronic components, highly reliable protection of programs and data, a little bit machine word (26 bits), sufficient for process control tasks and, most importantly, the universal device with the object (USO). These principles have been implemented in developing UMSHN, later called "Dnepr", and in its subsequent development of other control machines.

The transition from the specialized control machines on a technical basis of the first generation (lamp) to a universal semiconductor was important from the point of view of the organization of industrial production and wide application in process control systems.

In the US, the development of a universal control machine was started a little earlier, but running it in production was carried out in 1961, t. E. Almost simultaneously with the machine "Dnepr".

The first machine "Dnepr" has released the Kiev factory "Radiopribor".

At the initiative of VM Glushkov in Kiev began construction of factory VUM (later Kiev NGO "Electronmash"), which produced the machine "Dnepr" for 10 years.

In parallel with the creation of the initiative UMSHN Glushkov B.N.Malinovskim, A.I.Nikitinym V.M.Egipko and work was carried out on the management of complex technological processes at a distance (by computer "Kiev"):

smelting steel in the Bessemer converter at a metallurgical plant in Dneprodzerzhinsk;

column carbonization at soda plant in Slavyansk.

Another direction of the work of the Institute of Cybernetics in the field of computer hardware have become computers for engineering calculations. The first machine of this class was the computer "Promin", which was released in 1963 Severodonetsk Instrument-Making Plant. It was the first car with a stepped firmware running on that later Glushkov received a copyright certificate.

It was followed by machine MIR-1 (1965), MIR-2 (1969) and MIR-3. Their main difference from the other computer has a hardware implementation of machine language, close to the high-level programming language. Computer family "WORLD" interpreted language Algol "analyst", developed in the Institute of Cybernetics under the leadership of Glushkov AA Letichevsky, V. Annunciation, Dorodnitsyn.

The team of developers of computer MIR-1 headed by VM Glushkov was awarded the USSR State Prize.

In the late 60s under the leadership of Glushkov began developing computer "Ukraine" - the next step in the development of intellectualization of computer architecture and development of high performance mainframes, other than architectural principles Dzh. von Neumann. Computer "Ukraine" was not built because of lack of time necessary components.

The ideas put by Glushkov in the framework of the project "Ukraine", in many respects anticipated what was used in the American mainframes 70s. The book "The computer with the advanced systems of interpretation", written by Glushkov, AA Barabanov, LA Kalinichenko, SD Mikhnovsky, ZL Rabinovich, was published in 1970. It contained a theoretical study of computer architecture in the direction of implementation of high-level languages.

In 1974, VM ??Glushkov in the IFIP Congress made a report on the recursive computer (co-VA Myasnikov, MB Ignatiev, VA Torgashov). He expressed the view that only the development of a fundamentally new computing architecture nefonneymanovskoy will solve the problem of creating a supercomputer whose performance is incremented indefinitely while building hardware. The idea of ??constructing a recursive computer, supported by a powerful mathematical apparatus of recursive functions, ahead of its time and has remained unrealized iz-za lack the necessary technical framework.

On the IFIP Congress in 1974 in Stockholm VM silver core - Glushkov special award was given to address the IFIP General Assembly. So the big contribution of the scientist was awarded to the work of the organization as a member of the Program Committee of Congress in 1965 and 1968., As well as Chair of the Congress Programme Committee 1971

At the end of the 70s Glushkov suggested principle macroconveyor computer architecture with a number of commands and data streams (MIMD architecture for the modern classification) as the principle of the implementation nefonneymanovskoy architecture.

Development macroconveyor computer was made in the Cybernetics Institute under the leadership of Glushkov SB Pogrebinsky (chief designer), VS Mikhalevich, AA Letichevsky, I. Molchanov. Machine EU in 2701 (in 1984) and computing the EU-1766 system (in 1987) were transferred into serial production at the Penza factory VEM. At that time it was the most powerful in the USSR computing systems with a nominal capacity exceeding 1 ppb abroad op. / Sec. In the multiprocessor system provides near linear performance increase with the increasing computing resources and dynamic reconfiguration. They did not have analogues in the world and were the original development of the UCS in the direction of high-performance systems. See them in action Glushkov is no longer necessary.

Glushkov was recognized as the world authority in the field of cybernetics. He formed based on the works of AI Berg, Lyapunov, Sobolev, IA Poletaeva their understanding of cybernetics as a scientific discipline, its methodology and research sections of the structure. This was in the 60s by Glushkov were written scientific articles in domestic journals, articles in British and American technology encyclopedias.

The monograph Glushkov "Introduction to cybernetics" was published in 1964

Cybernetics Glushkov interpreted broadly - as the science of the general laws, principles and methods of information processing and management of complex systems. Computer science was seen as the main technical means of cybernetics.

This understanding is reflected in the world`s first "Encyclopedia of Cybernetics", prepared at the initiative of VM Glushkov and published in 1974 under his editorship. In the preparation of the encyclopedia was attended by more than 100 leading scientists of the Soviet Union, including more than 50 specialists of the Institute of Cybernetics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. In 1978, a team of editors and responsible for sections of the encyclopedia was awarded the State Prize of Ukraine. The encyclopedia covered:

theoretical cybernetics (information theory, automata theory, systems theory);

economic cybernetics (the economic-mathematical models for systems management businesses and industries, transport, etc.);

Biological Cybernetics (brain models of human bodies, regulatory systems of living organisms);

technical cybernetics (management of complex technical systems);

Computer theory (principles of construction and design of computers and software);

Applied and Computational Mathematics.

At the time, Glushkov spoke with the new ideas of building intelligent systems (artificial intelligence systems) such as "eye-hand", "reading machine", "self-organizing system." He has worked on computer systems simulation of such intellectual processes such as decision making, displaying the status and situation of the economic, technical, biological and medical systems.

Designed by Glushkov new approaches and based on these methods and models for information processing in the time unrecognizable changed and enriched the toolkit of cybernetics, radically transformed the theory of computer systems and control systems, preparing the foundation for the development of a new round of information science - the theory information technology (Computer Science).

In this regard have been developed proposed by Glushkov approaches on the use of automated information technology intellectual and formal means of natural language, which allows us to offer a fundamentally new design technology and algorithmic organization, information and computer software, reducible to create almost "deserted" technology specialized programming. The developed formalism allows to synthesize the algorithmic model of coherent text and automate the process of creating the corresponding text of the knowledge base or the information domain model.

A qualitative change in the nature of the problem of artificial intelligence, which foresaw Glushkov, is that developments in this area no longer has a laboratory curiosities in the research teams, and the studies themselves have moved from the stage to the stage of romanticism cybernetic solutions applications with their severe prosaic requirements. It Glushkov contributed to the cessation of natural philosophical disputes such as: "Who is smarter: a person or a machine?", Which could last up to infinity, and the realization that a person who has at his disposal a computer, much smarter and more powerful than a man without COMPUTER.

Glushkov actively promoted a practical approach to the problem of artificial intelligence as a matter objectively has brought to life the growing power of computers and their penetration into all spheres of human activity. He noted at the time that the social demand for products of "artificial intelligence" passed the stage of formation.

Followers Glushkov not caught by surprise emerged in recent years, a situation where the decision intellectual tasks and creating a new generation of intelligent systems has become one of the bottlenecks in the practical application of computers. Development of a computer the ability to perceive visual information has become a critical factor in their application in cartography, computer-aided design, medicine, and culture, the study of the Earth and space resources. The development of computer skills to the anthropomorphic behavior and orientation in a real environment is becoming a prerequisite for progress in the automation of Smith. Finally, the development of computer skills to the speech dialogue with the person turns the computer is not only useful, but also a comfortable, friendly partner in the implementation of their tasks the person.

Developments followers Glushkov in these areas are now at a level that fully ensures their competitiveness in the world. This is - a study on the structural pattern recognition, syntactic methods for image analysis and voice signals, methods of structural analysis in the scenes view of robots, new advances in technology neurocomputing. Applied analysis system drawing and graphics, maps, sketches, created by Ukrainian scientists are taking a strong position in the markets of Japan, planning methods purposeful behavior Smith robots stand trial at the company "Samsung".

In the field of information technologies in biology and medicine in the development of ideas Glushkov about information modeling developed the basic theory and practice of medical information systems and new information technologies, application-oriented research and medical institutions.

Glushkov believed that a consistent accumulation of knowledge presented in the form of computer knowledge base, and effective methods for their treatment will help people save the best that they create and develop intellectual abilities of computer makers immortalize human civilization. This view becomes now the main understanding of modern computer science problems.

Much attention is paid Glushkov work on the creation of automated control systems (ACS) on the basis of the application of computer technology.

Application development of ACS were always a significant share in the category of the Institute of Cybernetics. They covered a wide range of applications:

Automated process control systems (DCS);

automation systems research and testing of complex industrial projects;

automated systems of organizational management industry, (CAM system).

Glushkov together with his students and colleagues made a great contribution to the formation and implementation of the ideas of creating process control systems, the development of the corresponding theory, mathematical, software and special technical equipment for control of technological processes in microelectronics, metallurgy, chemical industry, shipbuilding.

Automation of experimental research in the early 60s was associated with automation of measurements and processing the information received by the control "Dnepr" machines. Then Glushkov proposed to develop the forces of academic institutions automated problem-oriented laboratory includes a set of measuring tools, computer (micro- or mini-computers) and measurement processing program. 5-6 of standard laboratories were scheduled for X-ray analysis, mass spectrograph, and other methods of experimental studies used in chemistry, physics, biology.

For processing the results of experiments such sophisticated nuclear laboratory offers to connect to a remote computer such as BESM-6 or the EU-1060. Since most scientific experiments are not limited to the collection and processing of data and require fine tuning themselves experimental facilities, Glushkov set the task of automating operations to configure these settings. Through the efforts of specialists of the Institute of Cybernetics were automated tests on mechanical fatigue of materials in institutes