Basil the Great, along with his brother St. Gregory of Nyssa and his friend St. Gregory Nazianzen (the Theologian), was the representative of Cappadocia school of orthodox theology, occupies the middle, conciliatory position between the schools of Antioch and Alexandria. Basil the Great was born in Caesarea in Cappadocia in 329 His father, of the same name, and Emmeliya mother belonged to a well-born families of Cappadocia and Pontus and gave her numerous children the best possible education. On the 18 th year B. went to Constantinople, where he attended a famous while sophist Lebanon, and then spent any years in Athens, then the center of higher philosophical education; There he befriended who lived for the same purpose in Athens Gregory Nazianzen, and became acquainted with the future emperor Julian. Back in Kecapiyu, B. took St. baptism and was dedicated to a reader, then, permeated ascetic ideal, wanted to become better acquainted with monasticism flourished and then through Syria and Palestine went to Egypt. Here the Christian life has made him a dual impression: he was struck by surprise before the extraordinary feats St.. hermits - and yet deeply disappointed in the prevailing church divisions and unrest, on the occasion of the Arian heresy and the various divisions. On his return, B. actively engaged in the dispensation of monasticism and founded several monasteries in the Pontic region and wrote for them the charter. Dedicated in 364, in the elders, VA has been very influential part in church affairs, and successfully resisted the Arians who received predominance under the emperor Valente and persons wishing to take over the church of Caesarea. However, B. engaged in the organization of Christian charity, founded a lot of shelters for the poor (ptohotrofy) and at least fearlessly stood up for the oppressed and the persecuted. All this, combined with impeccable ascetic way of life, has become immensely popular Basil. Elected in 370, the archbishop of his native city, VA to do and church-wide affairs; the messengers and letters, he joined the enterprising intercourse with St. Athanasius of Alexandria, as well as with the Roman Pope Damasus, trying to more closely unite the Orthodox forces to victory over the Arians and the pacification of the church. At the same time Basil had to endure hostility from both sides: he hated and Arians as a direct enemy, and excessive zealots of orthodoxy, we find that it is too compliant, and not firm in his conciliatory efforts, while at the same time, many criticized him for his pride, dryness and arrogance. In the year 371, W. on the occasion of a church festival, said most of the preaching of theological content. Not wanting to immediately repel those poluarian who were willing to recognize the divinity of the Son of God, but did not dare to assign the same dignity and the Spirit of St., V., referring to the third person of St. Trinity, never called him directly by God. Rumors about this aroused great indignation in different places. B. Himself, as well as Gregory of Nazianzus, who was trying to protect his friend, was accused not only of cowardice, but also directly into apostasy. However, while the greatest theological authority, St.. Athanasius the Great, Archbishop of Alexandria (who died shortly after), had written to testify in the most respectful words of impeccable orthodoxy V. and correctness of his course of action. In 372, the Caesarea prelate had to withstand another storm. Emperor Valens decided to impose Arianism Caesarea Church and destroy its archbishop. With this view he sent the first prefect Evippiya with its other courtier, and then was himself. St. V. excommunicated lords-heretics, and the most Valens allowed into the temple only for the offering of the gifts. The emperor did not dare to enforce their threats, and retired, did nothing. St. W., ruined his health ascetic feats, and already from the age of forty who called himself in letters to the old man, died in 378, at 49 years of age. Despite this relatively brief life filled with such varied and difficult cases, St. Vasili left a wealth of contributions to St. otcheskuyu literature, where it works occupy one of the first places. Here is a list of works, no doubt belonging to him: Nine interviews in the Six Days; Sixteen interviews on various psalms; five books in defense of the orthodox doctrine of the Holy Trinity against Eunomius.; Twenty-four conversations about various subjects; seven ascetical treatises; monastic rules, in two editions (lengthy and short); charter selfless; two books on baptism; Book of the Spirit of St .; several sermons and 366 letters to various people.
Memory St. Vasily V. celebrated on the day of the Circumcision of the Lord, January 1st. In addition, he and his friend, St. Gregory Nazianzen (the Theologian) and the greatest Christian luminary follow their generation - St. John Chrysostom, honored a special occasion, on January 30, at the next occasion. In the XI century, a dispute arose between the Greeks: one of these three ecumenical saints and teachers of higher dignity. The dispute, according to the custom of the Greeks, very hardened, and were ready formed three sects: Basilian, Grigorian and Saint John. Then one of the holy bishop, Io Anna Evhaitskomu, appeared in a dream three St. and announced that between them there can be no question of superiority, they still serve God and the Church, each in its own way, and ordered John to inform the patriarch and the emperor that greater glory of God and the peace of the church should establish a common holiday of the three prelates, which was done.
Since the beginning of the XVI century writings of St. VV printed many times. The main publications are: Paris 1526, gagskoe 1528, Basle in 1532, the Venetian in 1535, Basel 1551 and 1566 years. and Paris 1618 Full Russian translation of works published VV Moscow Theological Academy, in "Creation of St. Fathers."
Look at VV church singing was expressed in the following words:. "Inasmuch as the Holy Spirit knew that it is difficult to lead the human race to virtue, that addiction to pleasure we negligent on the right path, doing the exercises that mixes pleasure sladkopeniya to? along with the delectable and sonorous to the ear took us inconspicuous way and that there is useful in a word. this something end invented for us shapely singing psalms, so that the children age, or do not matured, apparently just sang them, actually taught their souls. " When B. Veale. the entire parish participated in the liturgical singing, singing psalms, concluding poems and short musical formula in the word "Amen," "Lord have mercy," and so forth.