Date of Birth: 03/21/1635
Place of birth: pom. Ohluhris
On the life of a true hero of Russia, arbiter of history sunset "Muscovy", fighting general and admiral of the great fortifier, merchant, diplomat, mentor of Peter the Great in military actually very little known even professional historians. History, as well as human life is very capricious, changeable and sad.
The dotted outline the vital fabric of our character. Patrick Leopold Gordon was born March 21, 1635 in the northern Highlands of Scotland, Aberdeen sherifstve in Ohluhris estate, family well-born but impoverished parents. Gordons belonged to a famous Scottish clan, one of the branches which later became the duke. Tribesmen Gordon differed strict adherence to Catholicism and loyalty to the kings of the Stuart dynasty. Patrick, alas, was the youngest son, he could not inherit his father`s small estate, the fate in store for him the difficult fate of the soldier.
Patrick`s father taught not only to combat the craft, in particular, fencing and shooting a musket; boy four years attended school, learned the Latin language. Clan Gordon took an active part in the Civil War, of course, on the side later executed King Charles I. Patrick fought on the early childhood, however, many of his relatives perished in battles with the army of Cromwell. After the victory of the English Revolution of the Gordons were deprived of property, all royalists became pariahs: they do not take on any service in the army or the navy. Patrick was forced to leave his dear heart of Scotland: in June 1651 he sailed on a ship in the German Danzig. For two years he studied at the Jesuit College Braunsbergskoy where simply fled. Fairly postranstvovav by continuously warring Europe, by Patrick in 1655 enlisted as a private in the cavalry army of Swedish King Charles X, who fought with the Polish King Jan Kazimierz. Scottish Highlander, the Reiter, the dragoons, fought 6 years changed the banners: the transition in the Polish army, and returned to Sweden, and then again in Polish, was twice imprisoned, jailed, received ten wounds, fight duels, looting, etc. . D. Landsknecht mercenary even amassed some wealth, mined in the fighting.
Gordon managed to serve as a lieutenant and in parts of the great general, the Polish king Jan Sobieski, who fought with the Moscow kingdom for possession of Smolensk. Patrick in 1660 participated in the battles with the troops of his future second homeland. Poles captured Colonel Scot John Crawford, who served as "the king of the Muscovites" and was able to lure the army countryman Alexei Mikhailovich, beguiled high salary. In Moscow the shelves were many Scots-royalist emigrants, and in particular, six noblemen of the Clan Gordon.
September 2, 1661 Patrick arrived in Moscow, bringing ssoboy four carts chest with 600 gold coins-mi, four servants and, more importantly, rare in those days the library consisting of books of ancient authors and works on military affairs, fortification, etc. After years of passionate "devourer" of these folios will be Peter I. Foreigners who have expressed a desire to serve in the regular army of Moscow, were presented to the king in a crowd. Alexis gave Gordon shaped examination, questioned in detail, marveled at his military experience and knowledge, made a test in fencing and shooting a musket and enrolled at once a major (senior officer rank) in D.Krouforda regiment. Unheard of royal favor: as a rule, foreigners officers were taken to the royal army privates. So Patrick Leopold became Peter Ivanovich on a long thirty-eight years. Settled major in the German Quarter, famous Kuku, soon became the "unofficial leader", as they are now expressed, foreign inhabitants in the First Throne, engaged in commerce, lent money at interest, ordered from England, books and newspapers, received from the correspondence with the relatives of information on innovations in royal army, new discoveries and inventions. If desired, such an interest could be interpreted as a military and scientific espionage. Later, however, all this will be the foundation of Peter`s military reform.
Peter Ivanovich, who knew English, Swedish, Polish, Russian and Latin languages, a brilliant mastery of words, wrote in a day in different European cities on 15-20 letters. For many years, excellent English almost every day he made notes in his diary: "The magazine or daily notes of the former in the Russian service of General Gordon, they are hand-written himself." Before we reached invaluable as a historical source of detailed, comprehensive, wise "blog" Scot (3518 pages) for 26 years.
After the restoration of the monarchy in England, Gordon could return to Scotland. During the decades of Russian life, he twice visited the country, acted as Britain`s ambassador to Russia, and the Ambassador of Muscovy in the UK, but always remained in Muscovy. Peter Ivanovich was married twice. His sons, Yakov Petrovich, and Fedor Petrovich became officers of the Russian army, but left no offspring.
Mayor dragoons served honestly and spravno. In the summer of 1662, he distinguished himself during the suppression of the so-called Bronze riot provoked by inflation of copper coins. In 1664, Petro received the rank of colonel and appointed commander of the Dragoons. With 1670 on 1677 he is chief of the garrison in the Ukrainian city of Sevsk, on the border with Poland. In 1677-1678 years when the new king Theodore A. Gordon takes a most active part in the Russian-Turkish war, heroically defends entrusted with its komandovaniyuvoyskami Chigirin Fortress from the Ottoman and Crimean troops. For Chigirina defense August 20, 1678 Gordon produced a major general. For several years, Peter Ivanovich was the only foreigner in the Moscow army who had the rank of general.
After the sudden death of Tsar Fedor Alekseevich (1682) as a result of rebellion archers hated regular military units headed by officers-foreigners "vykliknuli king" Princess Sophia, which became the uncrowned kings autocrat when young Ivan and Peter. Rely on the musketeers, "autocrat" did not like Gordon and sent him to serve in Kiev, who quit to the Russian crown, where the Scot and his family spent nearly eight years, occasionally bumping into the capital. Peter Ivanovich showed himself as an experienced commander and fortifier, strengthened the fortifications ancient city.
In 1686, Gordon asked Sophia resign. In response to "autocrat" demoted to lieutenant general, but soon thought better of it and returned the Scot the rank of general. Gordon held his offense, three years later he was able to repay capricious ruler. In 1687 and 1689 the Scot took part in the heroic but inglorious Crimean campaigns under the leadership of Sophia`s favorite prince V.Golitsyna. Petro commanded Butyrsky elected (ie, model) regiment. For good governance, "the body", and unparalleled courage of Gordon was promoted to "full generals." In between the first and second Crimean campaign held a crucial meeting of General-Scot with the young Tsar Peter. Tsar Ivan was weak health, hardly engaged in public affairs, Peter was eager for power, trying to wrest the crown from his half-sister. Young Sire formed his "funny" regiments - Transfiguration and Semyonov, who became the backbone of the new army. September 17, 1688 King first visited the Gordon House in the German Quarter. The Scot became a consultant to the young king in the artillery, fortification s and other military sciences. On the horizon of Russian history climbed star "shkotskogo German" (the so-called Muscovites Scots).
In the summer of 1689 there was a conspiracy musketeers - supporters of Sophia, the purpose of which was the murder of Peter, the ruin of Kukui, the extermination of foreigners, the destruction of regular regiments. The king fled to the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. September 4, 1689 Petro brought in reinforcements from Moscow to Peter his regiment and the serving foreigners and dragoons of cavalry. Sophia left without troops, he was brought down and imprisoned in the Novodevichy Convent. Peter actually became the absolute sovereign. Gordon, appointed commander of the Moscow garrison, entered the narrow range of the closest associates of the king of seventeen, "he became one of the closest aides of the autocrat in matters of equipment and training of troops" in the European manner. It began unheard of in the history of the rise of the Moscow Catholic Scot, who was 54 years old.
Gordon teaches Preobrazhensky and Semenov, of the plans of fortresses, led by fortification work is project charters and plans of campaigns, helps Peter to build the first ship, received the title of Admiral, swims with the king in Arkhangelsk and the White Sea, build a fortress for unprecedented maneuvers, dubbed " Kozhukhovsky amusing war. " The climax of the military career of Peter Ivanovich was the participation in the first and second Azov campaigns (1695-1696), ended with the capture of the Ottoman fortress impregnable. Gordon served as the first deputy of Generalissimo A.S.Sheina and "engineer-general." "Shkotsky German" has applied innovative siege reception ( "prisyp"), forced the enemy to surrender. For projects Scot built new Russian fortress on the banks of the Don, won from the Turks. Peter and his general founded the city of Taganrog on the Azov Sea. In between the Azov campaign (29 January 1696), the king died, co-ruler Ivan. Peter became an absolute monarch.
For the capture of Azov autocrat generously rewarded his general, in particular, granted him the "fiefdom" of a hundred peasant households. So-Scottish nobleman became a Russian nobleman, landowner. Before long his departure with the Grand Embassy to Europe (January 1697) Peter Gordon appointed chief of the Moscow garrison. In the summer of 1698 was the last time the archers rebelled, refused after "Azov seats" to serve in the Great Luke border. Enlisting the support imprisoned princess, four rebel regiment moved to Moscow, intending to return in the absence of Peter Sophia on the throne. In the battle under the walls of the Resurrection Monastery June 18, 1698 Moscow`s troops under the command of Gordon soundly defeated rebels who rejected the peace talks. Upon learning of the revolt, the king of August 26 quickly returns to Moscow begins "wanted list", a torture investigation and Strelets`execution. 1154 "thieves" were beheaded and hanged. The word "Sagittarius" in official documents was permanently replaced by the "soldiers". General Pyotr second time saved the throne Russia converter.
At the end of the same year, Gordon, a very old man at the time, ill, however, continues to cooperate with the king, consults and gives advice. Valiant warrior died on November 29, 1699, he closed his eyes crowned pupil and friend. In the presence of the Great Scot Peter was buried under the altar of the first Catholic church in Russia, built in 1694 in the German Quarter. After a hundred years of dust Gordon was moved to Moscow Vvedenskoye Cemetery ...