Date of Birth: 18/11/1903
Born in the village. Warm Tula province. Father Alexei Dmitrievich - junior clerk in lumber; mother, G. Love - a housewife. The third of four children (born in 1898, Alexander, in 1901 - Maria, in 1905 -Valentina). As a member of the Komsomol activist, Nikolai was sent to study in Moscow, the Communist University. Sverdlov. In 1919, he joined the party. After graduating from high school is aimed at Yenakiyevo (Donbass), which led to the metallurgical plant Party committee. There`s also married Maria Litvinova, daughter Maya was born soon.
In the future, new study - in the Institute of Red Professors. In 1934, at the XVII Party Congress Voznesensky was elected to the Soviet Control Commission under the Sovnarkom of the USSR. Then he sent to Leningrad to guide city planning commission. Since 1938 - the chairman of Gosplan. Since 1939 - Deputy Chairman of People`s Commissars (1946 - Council of Ministers) of the USSR. In 1942-1945 gg. - Member of the State Defense Committee. Member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) since 1939, since 1947 - member of the Politburo (candidate since 1941). The Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1946, author of the study "The war economy of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War." For this work, Voznesensky was awarded the Stalin Prize (1948).
However, after a year of Stalin`s attitude to the Chairman of the State Planning Commission has changed dramatically. The reason for this is said to have served as a famous at the turn of the 1940`s -1950`s discussion about the economic problems of socialism. The discussion was sparked controversy in the Politburo, initiated by the Ascension. Even then, he has declared transition to a free economy, which during the war perestroilasna war footing: the order - execution for failure - prison or execution. "Stalin convened a meeting of economists from across the country ... The discussion touched externally rather abstract issue: whether the law of value under socialism work? And the essence of the case was whether the authorities at their own discretion and arbitrary command all can - resource prices, people to determine the proportions in the economy, the level and way of life, and so on, or have any limits, emanating from the requirements of efficiency.. economy. Clearly, Stalin firmly adhered to the first of these points of view "(F. Burlatskii leaders and advisers M., 1990, p 127).
Soon Voznesensky was arrested for "Leningrad case". At the same time his brother were arrested by AA Ascension (1900-1950 gg .; prominent economist, rector of Leningrad University, then - Minister of Education of the RSFSR) and sister Maria (party worker). They were arrested and killed their closest relatives. All rehabilitated posthumously.
Khrushchev in his memoirs, says that he heard Stalin reported, though the Ascension in the last word at the trial cursed the day when he first appeared in Leningrad. "He said that Leningrad has already played a sufficient role in the conspiracy that the city experienced all kinds of reactionary influence - from Biron to Zinoviev." Meanwhile, the security officer VI Berazhkou writes: "I have talked with many veterans who attended the court officers in the hall of the Leningrad home, and none of them said a bad word about the behavior of the Ascension there. On the other hand, pointed his calmness, firmness, integrity and non-recognition of his guilt "(VI Berazhkou Piterskie procurators. SPb., 1997, pp. 239-240).
Repression against the Soviet economists have been three stages. The first stage - the arrests of old professors and former Mensheviks, fabricated processes of the "Union Bureau RSDLP" and "Peasants` Party" in 1930 were subjected to defamation mercilessly those economists who dared to say that before to eliminate the private economy and the market, it would be necessary first establish a centralized planning and management, in other words, make sure that they are possible. Catastrophic practice early 30-ies showed how fantastic idea that the destruction of the old forms alleged by itself opens the way for new, more advanced forms of social life. Only excluding land and other natural resources of the entire economic accounting (which in the XX century. Was not in a cultured country), scramble or falsified data on the level of consumption, health, the environment and the population, the Stalinist statistics could argue that the increase in smelting iron and steel, mining ore and coal is equivalent to the country`s development, the welfare of the people.
Genuine balance of the national economy was bound to reveal the disparities, show real results of management, the actual level of consumption, the state land and natural resources. The result would have discovered that Stalin`s construction and transformation of a detrimental effect on people`s lives, destroying nature, do not increase, and reduce national wealth. However, the national economic balance has been declared "game tsifiri". Its developers repressed. Then the color was knocked out of the Soviet economic science: ND Kondratyev, AV Chayanov, VA Bazarov, GV Groman, LN Yurovsky, II Rubin, AM Ginsburg and many others. Were torn off the most important areas of scientific research, the Soviet economic science was thrown from the frontiers of science world, it was assigned the role of a closed sect, loss of property nature of science.
The next wave of persecution covers 1936-1938 years. Now economists Bolsheviks destroyed, miraculously survived the former Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries. He was arrested a layer of Marxist economists: SS Bessonov, KS Bhutan, GI Krumin, VP Milutin, BS Bori-ling, GA Abezgauz, GA Dukor and many others. Were destroyed theoreticians of the opposition, including prominent economists - EA Transfiguration, NI Bukharin, GY Sokolniki ... Irreversible change in economic science continues, leaving people highly gifted. Sharply reduced professional and moral level of science.
Finally, the third stage of the massacre of economics - a permanent "study" by "anti-cosmopolitan" campaign covering the post-war years. In 1947-1948. It was International Economists school rout (E. Varga, C. Cherry, L. Eventov, J. Trachtenberg, Bokshitskaya M. et al.). It was closed the Institute of world economy and politics, headed by ES Varga ... These campaigns have not resulted in mass repression, because with the death of Stalin and his era was over. But economists were arrested during these years. Only a few of the hundreds of repressed economists in the mid 50s returned to scientific work ... (Manevitch VE Stalinism and the political economy // Repressed Science. Vol. 1. L., 1991. S. 188-189, 197) .