Nikolay Gartman

Picture of Nikolay Gartman

Date of Birth: 02/20/1882

Age: 68

Place of birth: Riga

Citizenship: Germany


Nicola & # 769; d Ga & # 769; rtman (correct, but less common: Nicolas Hartmann, Latvian Nikl & # 257; vs Hartmanis; it Nikolas Hartmann; February 20, 1882, Riga - October 9, 1950, Gottingen..) - German philosopher idealist, founder of the critical (or new) ontology.

He was born in a German family in the part of the Russian Empire Riga. He graduated from high school in St. Petersburg; later he studied medicine at the University of Tartu (then St. George) and philosophy at St. Petersburg University, then enrolled at the University of Marburg. In 1922-195- professor of philosophy at the universities of Marburg (1922-1925), Cologne (1925-1931), Berlin (1931-1945) and Gottingen (1945-1950).

Being a disciple of Paul Natorp and Hermann Cohen performed a follower of the Marburg school of neo. Not satisfied with its subjectivism ( "methodologism") Hartmann under the influence of Edmund Husserl and Max Scheler developed its own ontological concept ( "new ontology"), which in general is the modernization of the Aristotelian-scholastic doctrine of being ( "ontology system", ie. 1 4, 1933-1950).

According to Hartmann, the being has a layered structure, and should be viewed as a hierarchy of four qualitatively different layers:



mental and


The forms of existence and categorical structure of the different layers are not the same: for example, layers of immaterial (spirit, mental) exist only in time. Each of the upper classes is rooted in a lower, but they are not fully defined. The lowest form of being active in its self-affirmation, the higher have a greater manifestation of freedom.

Hartmann considered fundamental philosophical problems unsolved. In ethics Hartmann after Scheler developed the theory of unchanging "ethical values". The main issue for Hartmann is in this area the problem of correlation values ??and free will, considered as the ratio of the two kinds of forces ( "determinations"): ideal (values ??are a guide for the faith) and the real (will performing assets) ( "Ethics", 1925 ).

The students were poet Hartmann Boris Leonidovich Pasternak and philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer. In his early philosophy of biology works is sometimes referred to in the recent studies and discussions genomics and cloning.


Grundz & # 252; ge der Metaphysik der Erkenntnis. - 4. Aufl. - B., 1949.

Hartmann, H. Aesthetics. - M., 1958.

Hartmann, H. Old and new ontology / Trans. Mironova D. // Historical and Philosophical Yearbook. 1988. - M .: Nauka, 1988. - S.320-324.

Hartmann, H. Systematic philosophy in its own presentation // Faust and Zarathustra / Trans. with it. - SPb .: Azbuka 2001.

Hartmann, H. The problem of spiritual being. Research to the justification of the philosophy of history and of the spirit // Cultural Sciences. 20th century. - M., 1995.

Hartmann, H. Ethics / Trans. with it. AB Glagoleva ed. S. Medvedev, DV Sklyadneva. - SPb .: University Foundation: Vladimir Dal, 2002.

Hartmann, H. K fundamental principle of the ontology / Trans. with it. V. Medvedev ed. DV Sklyadneva. - SPb. Science, 2003. - 639 p. - (Word on that exists). ISBN 5-02-026827-5