Niels Bohr

Picture of Niels Bohr

Date of Birth: 07/10/1885

Age: 77

Place of birth: Copenhagen

Citizenship: Denmark

Biography chemists. Bor.

The Source: Biographical directory "outstanding chemists of the world" (authors VA Volkov et al.) - Moscow, "High School" 1991

Danish physicist, member of the Danish Royal Society of Arts (1917), its president in 1939. He was born in Copenhagen. He graduated from the University of Copenhagen (1908). In 1911-1912. He worked under the guidance of English physicist JJ Thomson at the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University, in 1912 -.. 1913. - In the laboratory of Ernest Rutherford at Manchester University. Since 1916 - Professor, University of Copenhagen and at the same time since 1920 - Director of the Institute he established the theoretical fiziki.Nauchnye Bohr related to theoretical physics, at the same time laid the foundations of the new directions in the development of chemistry.

Created (1913) the first quantum theory of the hydrogen atom, in which:

It showed that the electron can rotate around the nucleus is not for anyone, but only in certain quantum orbits

He gave a mathematical description of the stability of the orbits, or stationary state of the atom

It showed that any radiation or energy absorption by the atom due to the transition between two stationary states, and there is discrete with the release or absorption of quanta of Planck

He introduced the concept of the principal quantum number for an electron characteristics.

I calculate the spectrum of the hydrogen atom, showing a complete coincidence of calculated data with the empirical. Built (1913-1921 gg.), Models of atoms of other elements of the periodic system, describing the motion of electrons in them by the main by-n and l quantum numbers.

Laid (1921), the first foundations of the physical theory of the Periodic Table of the Elements, which tied the periodicity properties of elements to the formation of electronic configurations of atoms with increasing nuclear charge. Substantiated the division of the periodic system in the main and side. For the first time explained the similarity of the properties of rare-earth elementov.Sformuliroval (1918) is important for the atomic theory of the correspondence principle. Much has done for the formation and interpretation of quantum mechanics, in particular, suggested (1927), which is of great importance for understanding the principle of subsidiarity. He has made significant contributions to nuclear physics. Developed (1936) theory of the compound nucleus, is one of the founders of the droplet model of nuclei (1936) and the theory of nuclear fission (1939), predicted the phenomenon of spontaneous fission of uranium.

He created a large school of theoretical physicists.

A member of many academies and scientific societies. Foreign Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (since 1929). Nobel Prize in Physics (1922).

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