Nicolas Carnot

Picture of Nicolas Carnot

Date of Birth: 06/01/1796

Age: 36

Place of Birth: Paris

Citizenship: France


Born June 1, 1796 in Paris in the family of a prominent military commander, politician and scholar. He studied at the Lycee Charlemagne, and then at the Ecole Polytechnique. On its completion in 1814 he was sent to the School of Engineering in Metz. In 1816 he was assigned to the Corps of Engineers, and for several years he carried out routine duties of a military engineer. Not satisfied with the inability to conduct research, participated in the contest for the vacant position in the body`s headquarters in Paris. After winning the competition, he moved to the capital. He continued to study, attending lectures at the Sorbonne, the College de France, the Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. The Conservatory Carnot met with N.Klemanso physicist who investigated the properties of gases. Communication with Clemenceau roused from Carnot interest in improving steam engines (this question has troubled his father). In 1824 he published an essay Reflections on the motive power of fire and on machines capable to develop this power (R flexiones sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres d veloppe cette puissance), which examined the problem of "getting traffic from the heat in a general way ". Considering the perfect circular process (Carnot cycle), the first to show that useful work can make only when moving heat from a hot body to a cold. He advanced the proposition that the amount of work is defined only by the difference of the heater and the cooler temperature and does not depend on the nature of the working fluid (Carnot`s theorem). He came to the concept of the mechanical equivalent of heat and formulated in general terms the law of conservation energiiU Carnot had extensive plans to continue its comprehensive study of the properties of gases and vapors. However, to realize these plans had been: August 24, 1832 Carnot died of cholera. All his belongings, including manuscripts, were destroyed by the laws of the time.

The only published work of Carnot was rated only two years later, when B.Klapeyron outlined in its mathematical form and introduced the graphical method of describing the Carnot cycle. Later, developing the teaching of Carnot, R. Clausius and Thomson came to the second law of thermodynamics.