Date of Birth: 03/29/1889
Place of birth: Merheuli village in Abkhazia
one of the Soviet party and state leaders and organizers of repression. Born 17 (29) in March 1899 in the family of a poor peasant in the village Merheuli in Abkhazia. He studied at the Sukhumi primary school, from which he graduated with honors, at the Baku Mechanics and Construction Technical School (graduated in 1919 with a degree in architect-builder), then in 1920-1922 he studied at the first and second years of the Baku Polytechnic Institute. Mikoyan daughter in law and daughter of the famous Georgian Bolshevik A.G.Geurkova Nami Mikoyan recalled that the young Beria "grew up on her mother`s arms, which earned her sewing. At school he studied very well. Then he sat down on the money, as the best student, the villagers pride, went to study in Sukhumi. Apparently, they always moved vain desire to advance, to be the first at any cost. But where he had a sense of beauty and good taste, manifested in the style of life, in the understated elegance of comfort? "
Along with his studies at the school worked as an intern head office of the oil company Nobel, he began to participate in political activities. In March 1917 he joined the Bolshevik Party. In June - December 1917 as a hydraulic equipment unit went to the Romanian front, then returned to Azerbaijan was admitted to the staff of the secretariat of the Baku Soviet of Workers` Deputies. Stayed in Baku in mid-1918 when the city was occupied by Turkish troops, he worked as a clerk at the "Caspian Company White City", performed various assignments trapped underground (from the end of 1918 to the spring of 1920 in power in Azerbaijan was a party "Musavat") of the Bolsheviks.
In the autumn of 1919 he joined the counterintelligence at the National Defence Committee of the Azerbaijan Republic. Subsequently, this period of life Beria caused a lot of rumors. It was said that he consciously worked on the Azerbaijani nationalists and even was an agent of the British. But the biographical questionnaire of its work in the bourgeois counter-intelligence Beria did not hide, in a letter to GK Ordzhonikidze in 1933 wrote that "the Musavat intelligence ... was sent by the party and that the issue is understood in the Central Committee of Azerbaijan Communist Party (b) in 1920." that the Central Committee of the ACP (b) "completely exonerated" it, because "The fact of working in counterintelligence with the knowledge of the party was confirmed by statements vols. Mirza Davud Huseynov, Kasum Izmailov et al. ".
In April 1920 he was sent to work in the illegal Menshevik Georgia as authorized Caucasian Regional Committee of the RCP (b). Almost immediately, in Tiflis he was arrested, released with a prescription within three days to leave Georgia. Under the name Lakerbaia worked in the embassy of the RSFSR in Georgia (the ambassador was then S.M.Kirov), in May 1920 he was arrested and imprisoned in Kutaisi prison and then deported to Azerbaijan. Since August 1920 managing director of the Central Committee of Azerbaijan Communist Party (b), executive secretary of the Extraordinary Commission for the expropriation of the bourgeoisie and the improvement of working life.
Since April 1921 the deputy chief of the Secret Operations Department of the Azerbaijan Cheka, in May of the same year - head of Secret Operations Division, Deputy Chairman of the Azerbaijan Cheka, from November 1922 - Head of the Secret Operations Division, Deputy Chairman of the Georgian Cheka. Since March 1926 Deputy Plenipotentiary of the OGPU in TSFSR, deputy chairman of the Transcaucasian GPU in December of the same year - the chairman of the GPU of the Georgian SSR. At the same time in April 1927 the People`s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Georgian SSR. Khrushchev recalled how Beria had acted cynically, trying to take the post of the first security officer in Georgia watered the then head of the GPU S.F.Redensa, husband of the sister of Stalin`s wife, then threw a drunk in the street, he picked up the police, came scandal in Redens result was recalled to Moscow. Since April 1931 the chairman of the Transcaucasian GPU. All major operations Transcaucasian Cheka (the destruction of the Georgian Mensheviks and the nationalists, the elimination of the local prosperous peasants and others.) Were carried out with the approval and under the direct supervision of Beria.
Since October 1931 the Second Secretary of the Transcaucasian Regional Committee of the CPSU (b). According to released in mid-1950 documents, the appointment took place at the insistence of Stalin and against the wishes of the then head of the Transcaucasian Bolsheviks M.Orahelashvili. Since October 1932 - the first secretary of the Transcaucasian Regional Committee of the CPSU (b). In 1933 he made a speech (its real author was shot in 1937, Director of the Georgian Institute of Party History E.A.Bediya) "On the History of the Bolshevik organizations in the Caucasus", which falsify the history of the revolutionary movement in the Caucasus, and the role of Stalin in every possible way exaggerated. Report liked leader, and was published as a separate book for mass circulation, recommended to study in Party education network. Rapprochement with Stalin also facilitated regular communication during the last visits to Abkhazia and Sochi on vacation. His loyalty to the leader Beria demonstrated in autumn 1933 during a walk on a boat on Lake Riza, when overshadowed by Stalin shots on the boat did not understand the situation, Coast Guard.
In the mid-1930s, he conducted the mass repressions among the Party and Soviet apparatus, intellectuals of Transcaucasia. There is ample evidence of his personal participation in the interrogation and beating of prisoners. Thus, the famous Georgian composer and conductor E.S.Mikeladze he himself pierced ears.
Since August 1938 Deputy Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR, head of the Main Directorate of State Security, in November - People`s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR. Since March 1939 a candidate member of the Politburo of the CPSU (b). Replaced as People`s Commissar of Internal Affairs N.I.Ezhova began cleaning staff in the NKVD (have been dismissed more than 7 thousand. People, or one in five workers), placed in key positions of his old colleagues and subordinates on Transcaucasia V.N.Merkulova, The .G.Dekanozova, B.Z.Kobulova, L.F.Tsanavu. S.S.Mamulova and others. The number of arrests was reduced in November 1939 issued a decree "On the shortcomings in the investigative work of the NKVD" with the requirement to respect the rules of criminal procedure. But at the same time the rights of the Special Meeting of the NKVD, which endured extrajudicial sentences, expanded the right of investigators has been officially confirmed by attempting to "clear and nerazoruzhivshihsya enemies of the people." In 1939-1940 carried out mass deportations from the western regions of Belarus and Ukraine, the Baltic republics, were shot in Katyn near Smolensk captive Polish officers.
After the division remained at the head of the second and at the same time, he was appointed Deputy Chairman of People`s Commissars of the USSR, was in charge of the forest and the oil industry, ferrous metallurgy, the river fleet in February 1941 the NKVD on the Commissariats of national security and internal affairs. During the Great Patriotic War, a member (with the May 1944 Deputy Chairman) of the State Defense Committee (GKO), responsible for the production of arms and ammunition. Supervised 1943-1944 in conducting operations to evict the Chechens and Ingush, Karachai and Balkars, Kalmyks, the Crimean Tatars, Meskhetian Turks, Kurds and other nationalities.
Relieved of His Post Commissar of Internal Affairs of the USSR in December 1945. At this point, most of the time devoted to the establishment of the atomic bomb. Back in December 1944 the GKO decree he was instructed to "monitor the development of the uranium." Since August 1945 the chairman of the special committee on "the management of all the work on the use of atomic energy of uranium." Since March 1946 member of the Politburo of the CPSU (b). As curator of the Soviet military-industrial complex and the nuclear project has proved demanding and skilful organizer, able to cope with any task. According to the memoirs of the nuclear industry leader Slavsky, "Beria not versed in scientific and engineering problems, so the opinion of specialists is always listening. The organization and carrying out the tasks in the mobilization of people and resources it is using the immense power, helped conduct the solutions into practice. " On the construction of numerous defense and uranium facilities, millions of people were involved in the majority of the Gulag prisoners.
After Stalin`s death in March 1953 was appointed first deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers and Minister of Internal Affairs of the USSR (a new ministry brought together former Minister of Internal Affairs and State Security). Returning to the leadership of the punitive organs, conducted serious reforms. Mikoyan recalled: when Beria "acted on Red Square over the grave of Comrade Stalin, after his speech, I said in your speech is the place to guarantee every citizen the rights and freedoms provided by the Constitution. This is not an empty phrase, but in a speech the Minister of Internal Affairs in a simple speaker speech - a program of action, you have to fulfill it. He replied: I`m doing it. " At the initiative of Beria amnesty was granted a significant number of prisoners softened passport regime, the Gulag system transferred to the Ministry of Justice has begun the rehabilitation of victims of repression. In this case we reviewed the second half of the 1940s - early 1950s (S.M.Mihoelsa murder, the case of "pests doctors" Mingrelian case, the case of the Main Artillery Directorate, and others.), In which the falsification of Beria did not participate because not then headed the secret police. In foreign policy, he suggested that the issue of the unification of Germany, played for Moscow`s control over the softening of other socialist regimes.
The activity of Beria and his growing authority frightened members of the Presidium of the CC CPSU. They conspired to remove him from power. At a meeting of the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee, June 26, 1953, Beria was arrested by a group of specially caused by this war led by Marshal Zhukov. At the hastily convened in early July of the same year the plenum of the CPSU Central Committee, Beria was removed from the Central Committee and expelled from the party as an "enemy of the Communist Party and the Soviet people." Sentenced on fabricated charges of the Special Bench of the Supreme Court, under the chairmanship of Marshal Konev 23 December 1953 to the death penalty. On the same day was shot.
"Delo" Beria efforts of party propaganda, accusing him of all sins and abuses of the previous era, has received wide response. He himself was in the public mind has become a symbol of evil, oppression and state violence.
Do not rehabilitated.