Larisa Bogoraz

Picture of Larisa Bogoraz

Date of Birth: 08/08/1929

Age: 74

Place of birth: Kharkov

Citizenship: Russia


Born on August 8, 1929 in Kharkov (Ukraine). She died in Moscow on April 6, 2004.

Parents - Party and government employees, members of the Civil War, members of the party. In 1936 Bogoras father was arrested and convicted on charges of "Trotskyist activity."

In 1950, having graduated from the Philological Faculty of Kharkov University, LI Bogoras married Yuli Daniel and moved to Moscow; until 1961 he worked as a teacher of Russian language schools in Kaluga region, and then in Moscow. In 1961-1964 gg. - Post-graduate sector of mathematical and structural linguistics of the Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences of the USSR; I worked in the field of phonology. In 1964-1965. lived in Novosibirsk, she taught general linguistics at the Philology of the University of Novosibirsk. In 1965 she defended her thesis (in 1978 the decision of the Higher Attestation Commission was deprived of a scientific degree; in 1990 HAC revised its decision and returned her PhD in Philology).

Bogoras knew about the "underground" literary work of her husband and A. Sinyavsky; in 1965, after their arrest, she, along with his wife Maria Rozanova Sinyavsky, actively contributed to a fracture of the public opinion in favor of the arrested writers. The case of Sinyavsky and Daniel was the beginning of a systematic activity of many human rights defenders, including the most Bogoras.

In 1966-1967, LI Bogoras regularly travels in Mordovia political camp on visits to her husband, she met there with the relatives of other political prisoners, including them in the social circle of the Moscow intelligentsia. Her apartment becomes a "transit point" for relatives of political prisoners from other cities, riding on a date to Mordovia, and for themselves political prisoners returning from camps after serving his sentence. In their appeals and open letters Bogoras first confronts the public consciousness the problem of political prisoners today. After one of such appeals the KGB officer, "oversaw" the family Daniels said: "We are with you from the very beginning were on different sides of the barricades, but you are the first fired.".

These years - the period of consolidation of many previously disparate opposition groups, circles and just groups of friends whose activity begins to grow into a social movement, later called human rights. Last but not least thanks to the "okololagernym" contacts Larisa I. This process went quickly beyond one social group - the Moscow liberal intelligentsia. Anyway, she was in the middle of the action.

The turning point in the development of the human rights movement was an appeal Bogoras (together with P. Litvinov) "to the world community" (01/11/1968) - a protest against the gross violations of the law in the trial of A. Ginzburg and his companions ( "four process"). For the first time a human rights document appealed directly to public opinion; Even he was not formally addressed to either Soviet party and state institutions nor the Soviet press. After being repeatedly passed over foreign radio stations, thousands of Soviet citizens learned that in the USSR there are people who openly advocate for human rights. On appeal began to respond, many expressed solidarity with its authors. Some subsequently became active participants in the human rights movement.

Signature LI Bogoras costs and by many other human rights texts 1967-1968 gg. and subsequent years.

Despite objections from a number of prominent human rights defenders (reduced to the fact that she was a "leader of the movement" should not expose themselves to the danger of arrest), August 25, 1968 Bogoras took part in the "demonstration of the seven" in Red Square against the entry of the Warsaw Pact troops Czechoslovakia. Arrested, convicted under Art. 1901 and 1903 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR in the 4 years of exile. Is serving a sentence in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, pos. Chung), I worked a scaffold worker at a woodworking plant.

Returning to Moscow in 1972, Bogoras not become directly involved in the work of the then existing dissident public associations (only in 1979-1980. Joined the Committee to Protect Velikanova), but continued from time to time to speak with important public initiatives, alone or in collaboration. So, she signed the so-called "Moscow-treatment," the authors who, in protest against the expulsion of Solzhenitsyn from the Soviet Union, demanded to be published in the Soviet Union, "The Gulag Archipelago" and other materials testifying to the crimes of the Stalin era. In her individual open letter to the chairman of the KGB Yuri Andropov she went even further, saying that does not hope that the KGB would open its archives voluntarily, Bogoras announced that it was going to collect historical data about Stalin`s repressions themselves. This idea was one of the pulses to the creation of independent samizdat historical collection "Memory" (1976-1984 gg.), In which Larisa I. took an unwritten, but rather an active part.

Occasionally LI Bogoras published her articles in the foreign press. So, in 1976, she, under the pseudonym "M. Tarusevich", published in the "Continent" magazine (co-authored with her second husband A. Marchenko) article "The third is given" on the problems of international detente; in the early 1980s caused a public discussion of its appeal to the British government to take a more humane for prisoners terrorist Irish Republican Army.

Bogoras repeatedly appealed to the Soviet government to declare a general political amnesty. The campaign for amnesty for political prisoners, begun by her in October 1986 together with S. Kallistratova, M. Gefter and Podrabinek was her last and most successful "dissident" action: a call Bogoras and other amnesty was this time supported by a number prominent figures of Soviet culture. In January 1987, Gorbachev started to release political prisoners. However, the husband Larisa I., A. Marchenko did not have time to take advantage of this amnesty - he died in Chistopol prison in December 1986

Outdoor activities Bogoras continued in the years of perestroika and post-perestroika. She has been involved in the preparation and work of the International public seminar (December 1987); the fall of 1989 joined the recreated Moscow Helsinki Group, and for some time was its co-chairman; in 1993-1997. It was part of the Russian-American Project Group on Human Rights. In 1991-1996 gg. human rights activist conducted an educational seminar on human rights for public organizations of Russia and the CIS. LI Bogoras - author of several articles and essays on the history and theory of the human rights movement.