Date of Birth: 03/28/1882
Place of birth: Moscow
Ilyin, Ivan (1882-1954), Russian philosopher and jurist. Born in Moscow on 16 (28) in March 1882. In 1906 he graduated from the law faculty of Moscow University and was retained by the university to prepare for a professorship. In 1910-1912 he trained at the universities of Heidelberg, Freiburg, Berlin, Paris, where he attended lectures major European philosophers - G.Rikkerta, G.Simmel, Husserl and OE From 1912 he taught at the University of Moscow. In 1918 he defended his thesis Hegel`s philosophy as the doctrine of the concreteness of God and man. In 1921 he was elected chairman of the Moscow Psychological Society. In 1922, together with a large group of artists Ilyin was expelled from Russia. He participated in the organization of Russian Scientific Institute in Berlin, she published the journal "Russian bell", published several books: The religious meaning of philosophy. Three Speech, 1925; On the resistance to evil by force, 1925; The path of spiritual renewal, 1935, and others. After coming to power in Germany, the Nazis lost his job, and in 1938 he emigrated to Switzerland, where he lived in the suburb of Zollikon Zurich. Ilyin died in Zurich December 21, 1954.
As a major legal scholar, a disciple of PI Novgorodtseva, Ilyin in his fundamental study of Hegel`s philosophy as the doctrine of the concreteness of God and man he regarded the Hegelian doctrine of the law and the state as part of a `holistic` metaphysics of the German philosopher. The basis of this metaphysics, according to Ilyin, lay religious experience, which has become the source of the main philosophical ideas of Hegel - the idea of ??"speculative-specific" ( "everything real is subject to the law of speculative concreteness - that the content of the fundamental experience and one of the basic idea, which is dedicated to the whole philosophy of Hegel "). Although Ilyin was never consistent Hegelian, he, like Hegel, was inclined to emphasize the unity of the legal and moral consciousness. In the work On the essence of justice (1956) he identified the "axiom of justice," the underlying social and political life, "the law of the spiritual dignity, autonomy law and the law of mutual recognition." The first of these captures the spiritual and personal status of the citizen, his inalienable right to self-esteem, personal dignity, defending its own position (intellectual, religious, moral, aesthetic). The second point reflects the complex dialectic of freedom and responsibility of the citizen, which can save their own "autonomy" only if it is the true subject of law and "intrinsically free" to perform his duties of state and society. The third principle recognizes the crucial condition for civilian life mutual respect citizens and their understanding of the absolute values ??of the civil and government institutions. Being a supporter of the monarchy, Ilyin at the same time believed that the monarchy is not always ideal can and must be brought to life. So, thinking about the prospects of Russia`s development in the post-Soviet era, it is appropriate to recognize the connection in its state organization monarchical, republican and aristocratic (elite) elements. Rejecting all forms of anti-state, the anarchist ideology, Ilyin criticized moral anarchism of Tolstoy in his work On the resistance to evil by force (1925). The religious-metaphysical constructions Ilina decisive role for spirituality (spirit) in man and in society. spiritual level determines the quality of individual and social life, and ultimately depends on the strong-willed, creative efforts of individuals. "Each of us must find and confirm a its most important - and no one else to replace him in this finding and approval can not. Spirit is the power of personal self-assertion in man - but not in the sense of instinct, and not in the sense of rationalistic states of awareness of his body and his soul, and in the sense of a true perception of his personal samosuti in it before God and its dignity. The person is not aware of its constant presence and his dignity, did not find her spirit. " Exceptional place in Ilina creativity in emigration period occupy his numerous articles about Russia, its past, present and future.