Ignatsy Domeyko

Picture of Ignatsy Domeyko

Date of Birth: 07/31/1802

Age: 86

Citizenship: Belarus


He was born on the estate Medvedka (Myadzvedka, Nedzvyadka) Novogrudok district of Minsk province (now Karelichi district). From 1812, together with his elder brother Adam Domeyko studied at public-relations school in Shchuchyn under the jurisdiction of Vilnius University. Tutors brothers was Onufriev Petrashkevich. After graduating from school in 1816, Ignacy Domeyko joined the Department of Physics and Mathematics of the University of Wilno. Domeyko 14-year-old was one of the youngest students. In June 1817, the candidate received stepent philosophy. Studies completed in the first half of 1820. Later, in 1822, he attended lectures astronomer Peter Slavinskogo in 1823 attended lectures Goluchowski philosopher and historian Joachim Lelewel. In June 1822 he was awarded a master`s degree in philosophy.

In 1820 he became a member of a secret student organization Philomath. He took part in the activities of subsidiaries Philomath - filadelfistov society, radiant and others in charge of the library Philomath.

He was arrested in November 1823. Together with the majority of those arrested were detained in Philomath Basilian monastery of the Holy Trinity. Thanks to the efforts of relatives in January or February 1824 Ignacy Domeyko was released. The verdict of the court, fastened with the Emperor on August 14 and announced by September 6, 1824, was, in comparison with the sentences, for example, in relation to Jan Tomasz Zan or Chechot, soft ,: judgment enjoined to live under police surveillance at the family estate, without the right to anywhere it was absent and to hold public office.

Six years Domeyko spent in behalf of his uncle, first in Zhibartovschizne, then in Zapolje. Translated into Polish songs of Ossian language and the Koran (along with the priest Dionisia Hlevinskim) .Zanimalsya economy - to introduce agricultural innovations, built mills, distilleries, sawmills. The life of his landlord, however, is not attracted.

In the same in 1830 for the first time I drove from Lithuania. I visited Warsaw, where he met with Joachim Lelewel. When he returned to his homeland, an uprising began in 1830. Domeyko took part in it, fought in parts of the DA Khlopovsky, at one time, along with Emilia Plater and her cousins ??Ts and W. Plater. After losing the battle of Shavlo summer of 1831, along with other rebels retreated to Prussia, where he was interned.

At the end of the year he received permission to leave at the beginning of 1832 he went to Dresden. In Dresden, again I made friends with Adam Mickiewicz, talked with Anthony Edward Odynets. He traveled to Saxony, Switzerland, visited Freiburg, where he got acquainted with the Mining Academy.

In August 1832, together with Miscavige and other immigrants arrived in Paris. He participated in the activities of the various emigrant associations. Helped Mickiewicz rewrite the epic poem "Pan Tadeusz" (served as a prototype steward Zegota, one of the heroes of the poem). He attended lectures at the Sorbonne and the French college, worked in the Botanical Garden, participated in geological excursions.

In 1834 he enrolled in the School of Mines (& # 201; cole des Mines). Compiled by geographical, geological and economic map of the former lands of the Commonwealth, and wrote to her extensive comments (map and comments were not published; materials used in other publications). In 1837 he received a degree in mining engineering. In the same year the school accepted the invitation to the mountain of La Serena Coquimbo in the south of Chile.

Until 1846 he taught at the School of Mines of La Serena (Coquimbo, and now the university in this city bears his name). Conducted various studies, compl mineralogical collection, founded a physics laboratory, research library, zoological collection. According to the method developed by the Domeyko knowledge were fixed practical lessons in chemistry, physics, geology. In 1845 he published a book in Spanish with descriptions of everyday life, culture, language Araucanian Indians, translated into several languages.

At the end of the term of the contract settled in Santiago de Chile. In December 1848 he received the Chilean nationality, summer 1850 married a Chilean. In 1852 he was appointed head of delegatures on Higher Education and has since been actively involved in the organization of education and research institutions in Chile. In 1867 he was elected rector of the University of Chile (Universidad de Chile) and was re-elected four times, remaining in that position for sixteen years. The Established on his initiative, the School of Mines were prepared by the Chilean national cadres of teachers of mining, geologists, mineralogists.

Organized Meteorological Service in Santiago de Chile. He continued to engage in mineralogical studies, studied discovered in the Atacama desert meteorite studied Aboriginal South America. Scientific papers (about 130) wrote mostly in French and Spanish. Several publications came out of his book and at the same time scientific work Elementos de mineralojia (1854, 1860, 1879), with multiple applications. I keep in touch with the homeland, sending to universities in Warsaw and Krakow their labor and other outputs in Chile publication, cared for the establishment in Krakow Mineralogical Museum. He became a member of many European scientific societies.

In the summer of 1884 with his sons arrived in Bordeaux. In Paris he met with friends and youth Laskovich Wladyslaw Jozef Bohdan Zaleski, visited the family of Wladyslaw Mickiewicz, the son of the famous poet. In Krakow, has been enthusiastically received by the scientific community. In Warsaw, I met with Odynets, visited Vilnius, at home in Nedzvyadke in the world and Novogrudok.

In the autumn he returned to Paris. In 1885 he traveled to Rome (had an audience with Pope Leon XIII) and Naples, then again visited Krakow where Peter Semenenko left for pilgrimage trip to the Holy Land. Back in Paris, he returned to his homeland and spent more than two years, briefly excommunicated occasionally.

In April 1887 the Krakow Jagiellonian University awarded an honorary doctorate degree Domeyko medicine. In the summer of 1888 he went to Chile. On the way, seriously ill. He died in Santiago de Chile, January 23, 1889. He was buried at the expense of the Chilean government; funeral day was declared a day of national mourning.

In the name of Domeyko named a minor planet discovered Chilean astronomer Carlo Torres in 1975 (asteroid 2784 Domeyko), mineral Domeyko discovered by Domeyko in 1844 in Chile, ammonite (Amonites domeykanus), bred in Warsaw sort of azaleas, a family of plants Domeykiaceae and several plants, cactus (Maihueniopsis domeykoensis), violet (viola domeykiana), cephalopod, a small city in Chile, the streets of Santiago de Chile, Valparaiso and back in eight cities in Chile, as well as in Vilnius, a mountain range in the Andes (Cordillera Domeyko ), the Polish library in Buenos Aires (Biblioteca Polaca Ignacio Domeyko), several schools and other educational and research institutions in Chile, Museum Krupava (Belarus), and so on. n.

In honor of its postage stamps were issued in Poland, Lithuania.

2002 in connection with the 200th anniversary of the birth of Domeyko was declared by UNESCO Year Ignatius Domeyko. Anniversary events under the patronage of Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski and President of Chile Ricardo Lagos took place in Chile, as well as in Belarus and Lithuania. In September 2002, at the gate bazilinskogo Monastery of the Holy Trinity in Vilnius, where the Domeyko was in custody during the investigation of Philomath, was opened a memorial table with its bas-relief (sculptor Valdas Bubyalyavichyus, architect Jonas Anushkyavichyus).