Hans Wilhelm Geiger
Date of Birth: 09/30/1882
Place of birth: Neustadt
Hans Wilhelm Geiger was born September 30, 1882 in Neustadt (Germany), the son of the teacher of philology. After high school he enrolled at the University of Erlangen and also attended lectures on physics at the universities of Munich and Tubingen.
Successfully graduated from the University of Erlangen with the degree of Doctor of Science in 1906, Geiger was sent to work in the University of Manchester, where there was one of the most prestigious departments of physics and developed in Europe in those years. There he became a close colleague and assistant eminent physicist E.Rezerforda.
In 1908, Hans has identified the electron charge, and with Rutherford invented a device for counting the individual charged particles - Geiger counter registering the intensity of the radiation. Later in 1928, he perfected his invention in conjunction with the German physicist V.Myullerom (Geiger-Muller counter). A variation of this counter is used in experiments to determine the structure of the atom.
In subsequent years, Geiger has spent a lot of experiments on the passage of alpha particles through thin films of various metals, finding that a very small number of particles scattered at large angles. The results of these experiments have played a decisive role in the discovery of the atomic nucleus by Rutherford and creating them full model of the atom.
Also during this period Geiger, together with the English physicist D.Nettolom formulated an empirical formula relating the ongoing radioactive decay with the energy of alpha particles (Geiger-Nuttall law).
In 1912 he was offered the lead spetsialnopostroennuyu for radioactivity research laboratory at the Physical-Technical Institute in Berlin. Back in Germany, and headed the laboratory, Geiger continued his study of the atomic structure.
During the First World War in 1914, a scientist called to serve in the headquarters of the German artillery. The hostilities did not participate, but frequent trips to the front undermined his health, and all his life he suffered from rheumatism. In 1918, Hans returned to work in his laboratory.
In 1925 he was invited to the post of professor and director of the Physical Institute of the University of Kiel. However V.Bote Geiger experimentally proved the validity of the law of conservation of energy and momentum in the elementary act of nuclear in the Compton effect. Later, in 1929-1936 years he worked at the University of Tubingen, where he continued to engage in the study of artificial radioactivity and nuclear fission, in the same place for the first time in the history of watching the flow of cosmic rays in a cloud chamber. Since 1936, Geiger - Technical university professor in Berlin.
But in 1938, the health physicist has deteriorated. Because of established rheumatic fever, he almost did not go out of the house. By the end of the Second World War, when the Red Army fought near Berlin, he and his family left the city to Potsdam.
German experimental physicist, member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and the Academy "Leopoldina," Hans Geiger was awarded the Medal D.Yuza. He was married to Elizabeth Heffter, they had three sons.
Hans Wilhelm Geiger died September 24, 1945 in Potsdam.