Grigoriy Butakov

Picture of Grigoriy Butakov

Date of Birth: 09/27/1820

Age: 61

Citizenship: Russia


Gregory Butakov (27 September (October 9), 1820 Riga - 31 May (June 12), 1882, St. Petersburg) - Russian naval figure, admiral, admiral, founder of the tactics of the steam armored fleet, the researcher of the Black Sea.

Born in the family of Captain 1st rank Butakova Ivan Nikolaevich, commander of the battleship "Tsar Constantine", famous for his exploits at about. Crete and the blockade of the Dardanelles during the war with the Turks. Rhode Butakova known from the XVII century. Uncle Grigory Ivanovich Alexander graduated from the Marine Corps, trained in the British Navy, was promoted to Major General. Five brothers Grigory Ivanovich became sailors, among them Alexei reached the rank of Rear Admiral, Ivan - the vice-admiral, and Gregory - full admiral.

Achievement list

May 6, 1831 - Enrolled in the Sea Cadet Corps.

January 9, 1836 - Graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps.

1836-1838 - A two-year practice on the ships of the Baltic Fleet.

1838 - Midshipman appointment to the battleship "Silistra" to the position of the flag-officer at the main commander of the Black Sea Fleet Admiral MP Lazarev.

May 1838 - took part in the landings at the coast of Abkhazia (awarded two orders with the "For Courage" sign).

1838 - participated in combat during the occupation of the town at the river. Tuapse.

In 1838 - at the tender "Ray" I participated in the battle against the Highlanders.

September 1838 - August 1840 - On the schooner "Swallow" sailed into the Aegean Sea.

April 1843 - Lieutenant (for otlichnuyusluzhbu).

1844 - On the schooner "Herald" swam in the Mediterranean Sea.

Fall 1846-1851 - Commander of the tender "hasty"

Summer 1847-1850 - Conducted extensive hydrographic work in the Black Sea (awarded the Order of St. Anne of III degree and a diamond ring.).

1850 - Lieutenant.

March 27, 1851 - sent to England to receive a ship under construction "Danube" and led him to Sevastopol.

December 3 1852-1854 - commander of the 11-gun steam-frigates "Vladimir".

5 (17) in November 1853 - to capture the 10-gun Turkish ship "Pervaz Bahri" (the first in the history of the battle of steam ships; GI Butakov was promoted to Captain of rank 2 and awarded the Order of St. George IV degree.).

1854-1855 - Participated in the defense of Sevastopol, commanded a detachment of steam-frigates, fire from the ships supported the Army, distinguished himself in the battle of Malakhov Kurgan.

October 9, 1854 - For the first time in the history of Russian naval artillery organized shooting at unseen targets.

August 31, 1855 - steam-frigates commanded by flooding.

March 1855 - Captain 1st rank.

September 1855 - adjutant, chief of staff of the Black Sea Fleet.

August 1856 - Rear Admiral with admission to the Imperial suite, the chief commander of the Nikolaev port and the military governor of Nikolaev and Sevastopol.

1860 - Transferred to the Baltic Sea by the detachment chief of screw ships.

5 September 1860 - Order of St.. Stanislaus I degree with swords.

1861-1862 - The commander of the detachment screw boat.

1863-1867 - Naval attache in England, France and Italy.

October 28, 1866 - Vice-Admiral.

1867 - Chairman of the Expert Commission on Marine Paris World Exhibition.

February 6 1867-1877 - Head of Practical squadron of armored ships in the Baltic Sea.

1868 - Senior leader of the Baltic Fleet.

April 16 1878-1881 - Full-Admiral with the appointment of the head of the coastal and maritime defense of the fortress Sveaborg.

1881 - chief commander of the port of St. Petersburg.

1882 - Member of the State Council.

GI Butakov painfully reacted to the appointment of a member of the State Council, which meant the resignation of fleet management and the rejection of its fleet of training principles. Soon he was seriously ill, and May 31, 1882 died of apoplexy, swimming across the Neva River on a skiff. He was buried in Sevastopol in the church of St.. Vladimir.

Contribution to naval science and practice

GI Butakov first undertook a study of tactics of the steam armored fleet. His essay "New Foundations of Steamship Tactics" was a major contribution to the theory of naval art, and the "rules of the steam ship maneuver" designed they are recognized and used in all the navies of the world.

Together with the IA Shestakov GI Butakov compiled the first systematic sailing directions of the Black Sea.

In 1867, on his squadron GI Butakov established the first laboratory experiments of mine, which was engaged in experiments on summing galvanic min ships and test minefields. In the laboratory were conducted theoretical studies, that 1 October 1874 were developed in the Mine officer class and mine school for the lower ranks.

During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 GI Butakov developed rules laying mines on the fairways, which are applied in practice with the device of Kronstadt mine defense.

He developed a strategy of fighting small ships in the Gulf of Finland archipelago.

In 1874, the project GI Butakov armored frigate "Petropavlovsk" was first equipped with artillery mine.

In 1877, GI Butakov suggested that Russia has neither armored nor cruise fleet, with its many fine, but individual ships, and offered to build cruisers and battleships series, designed in accordance with the intended objectives of the fleets, and advance prepare for their shots.

In the summer of 1878 by order of GI Butakov he introduced the world`s first Sloop trawl for the detection and destruction of moored mines.

GI Butakov introduced advanced methods of combat training of the fleet:

prepare the fleet for no shows and parades, but for war, for battle, the outcome of which depends on the skill of the officers and sailors;

longer swim, the practical training and teaching in an environment as close as possible to the fighting;

important in training and education - the development of staff in the courage, initiative, resourcefulness and creative ingenuity;

prepare the fleet to act together with ground troops.