Date of Birth: 07/17/1920
Place of birth: New York
Citizenship: United States
Who actually invented the laser?
Gordon Gould, the eldest of three sons, was born in New York (New York City) July 17, 1920-th. His father was the chief editor of `Scholastic Magazine Publications` in New York. Gordon grew up in Scarsdale (Scarsdale), where he attended school. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics from Union College (Union College) and a master`s degree from Yale University (Yale University), where he specialized in optics and spectroscopy.
From March 1944 to January 1945, Gould was connected to the Manhattan Project, but he was fired because of his involvement with the Communist political association.
In 1949, Gordon started working on his doctorate at Columbia University (Columbia University), chosen as the theme optics and microwave spectroscopy. His work was in charge of the Nobel Prize Polycarp Kusch (Polykarp Kusch). In 1956, Gould proposed the use of `optical nakachku` to excite the maser, and began to discuss his idea with the inventor Maser Charles Townes (Charles Townes). Towns Gould gave some advice, how to get a patent on innovation and has given his consent to act as a witness.
By 1957 th, many scientists, including Townes, looking for a way how to transform the energy of the pump. In November of the same year, Gould realized that it would be possible to make an appropriate optical cavity, using two mirrors in a Fabry-Perot interferometer (Fabry-P & # 233; rot). In contrast to the previously discussed designs, this approach would produce a narrow, coherent, intense beam. Since there was no need for the parties to the plane were reflective, creating a population inversion levels by optical pumping of the active medium should not be a problem.
For his invention, Gould used the acronym LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; translated into Russ` light amplification by stimulated izlucheniya`.). Shavlov Arthur (Arthur Schawlow) and Charles Townes independently discovered how big the role of an amplifier with a Fabry-Perot cavity, three months after Gould, and named the `optical device mazerom`. Gould first name was widely publicized at the conference presentations in 1959, and in spite of resistance from Shavlova and his colleagues, Gould has been recognized as the inventor of the laser.
Trying to get a patent for the laser, while Gould incorrectly believed that first he needed to create a working model of a laser, and left Columbia University, and has not received his doctorate. He joined the common research company `Technical Research Group`. However, due to technical difficulties and personal problems Gould who brought down upon his head the government, the first working laser produced Theodore Maiman of the research unit `Hughes Research Laboratories`.
Thirty patent war ended with Gordon that he still received 47 patents, of which optical nakachka` `` collisional nakachka` and permission to use the inventions have become the most important. Despite the fact that the role of Gould in the actual laser invention disputed for many years, he was still named a member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1991.
Gordon Gould died of old age, 16 September 2005, in New York.