Date of Birth: 10/28/1017
Henry III. Home rule and eastern policy
The transfer of power to Henry III was accomplished quietly: 22-year-old prince had long been devoted to business and enjoyed general confidence. Well educated, he was able at that time, scientific education, which his father had attached great importance to, because he has been deprived of it. The Henry was the perfect party, which was not at Conrad. His biographer WIPO ascribes to him all the virtues of the Christian emperor, but it still does not characterize his personality. He described a man of great stature, a head taller than the average male height, with a very dark complexion. He was married to the daughter of Danish King Gunhild - this name was redone in Germany in the conventional way Kunigunda - but she died after two years of marriage in 1038
Circumstances were composed unusually favorable to the accession of Henry. People`s power of the Dukes could be considered abolished: they were still only in Saxony and Lorraine. Carinthia freed; the most significant of the then rulers - the Danish Knut the Great and St. Stephen Hungarian - Conrad died before, leaving, like him, they equal the true sons. From the new king awaited solution of pressing issues of church reform, which the parties Conrad. Roman throne, still occupied by the IX unworthy Benedict, much needed reforms. One of the first consequences of the new management was that arrogant Archbishop Aribert of Milan began to seek reconciliation, which appeared in Ingelheim at Easter 1040 he was restored to the rank of bishop, and thus, in Germany, as in Burgundy and Italy were established peace and order.
Special attention demanding circumstances in the east, to which Conrad recently treated a few indifferent. In Poland, after the death of Boleslaw dominated anarchy and again strengthened paganism. In Hungary, the situation of St. Stephen`s successor, his son in law of Peter, it was difficult, here Christianity has not yet taken root. Czech prince Bretislav, passionate, capable and ambitious, took advantage of the Polish turmoil. He hoped to realize that for a short time managed to powerful Boleslaw the Brave: to establish a great and independent Slavic state. In one campaign, almost unopposed, he took possession of Cracow and Gniezno, and the last of the city brought the precious and important prey - the remains of St. Adalbert, transported to the Czech capital Prague, Bretislav like to draw to the capital of his great state. He wanted to come together with Henry, thinking to deceive his alleged resignation. He did not succeed, and the war began. The first campaign in 1040 was unsuccessful, but the second proved victorious in 1041 near Prague joined the three German armies. Bretislav submitted. He appeared before the King in Regensburg, and then Henry showed his statesmanship he received from Brzhetislava expression of obedience and renunciation of the Czech throne, but he returned the principality with Silesia. So he turned it into an ally, took to heart the spread of Christianity.
As for Poland, the rightful heir to the throne Casimir Piast was in Germany. With the permission of the King in 1041, he tried, with success, to win again and to appease their possessions, and then rule them as a vassal of the duke and German king. Hungarian Peter was overthrown rapid uprising and fled to King Henry in Regensburg. Instead, the winning party has chosen one of the nobles, Abu. Aba This, despite the fact that Christianity has kept turned to the still wild, pagan custom of predatory raids: not declaring war, in 1042 he invaded Bavaria, however, penetrated far: thanks to the local military forces, he was defeated. In the autumn of the same year he joined Henry in Hungary, defeated in two battles of the king-pretender and came back, taking possession of the country to the border and everywhere leaving their garrisons. He undertook a new campaign in 1043, when Abba again seized power, but the war did not come as Aba offered peace on favorable terms: he recognized the primacy of Germany and provided in its possession of all the land to Leitha and Morava. In these battles, Henry supported knighthood - numerous class, cohesive, or even created by Conrad II. Henry eagerly rewarded soldiers for bravery and won thanks to mining could pay them and to grant lands.
In autumn 1043 the young king married a second time, choosing a bride princess Agnes of Aquitaine Poitiers, the daughter of the richest and most powerful of the Western French vassals, the Duke of Aquitaine Guillaume: this family owed its foundation the monastery of Cluny. The wedding was celebrated in Ingelheim, which has gathered in anticipation of a great many rich of charity all the people: musicians, jugglers, singers, mostly from the south of France, read a classic country then all of free arts. But these people make a mistake in the calculation, because the degree of the king did not show them any favor. The clergy have long condemned such a fun, shared in this case, the King views and take a position hostile to the people.
This marriage was associated with extensive plans, based on the weakness of the royal power in eastern France. But to implement them, as well as to the conduct conceived church reforms, especially demanded in Aquitaine with its witting arts, clearly hostile to these reforms, Henry was not ready yet. Circumstances in Hungary complicated again: King Henry Aba poorly paid for the indulgence, and it was against the new campaign is needed. Aba retreated inland to the strong German army, and prepared to do battle only on the other side of Rab. Battle, called the Battle of Menf