Geinrih Wiland

Picture of Geinrih Wiland

Date of Birth: 06/04/1877

Age: 80

Place of birth: Pforzheim

Citizenship: Germany


Not sharing observed among scientists tendency to focus attention on the more narrow fields of science, B. made a significant contribution to the development of different areas of organic chemistry. He was also engaged in many issues not addressed by his predecessors.

B. First studied chemistry of organic nitrogen compounds, especially nitrogen oxides attachment mechanism to the carbon-carbon double bond and nitration of aromatic hydrocarbons, then the sequence of reactions occurring and intermediates occurring in the synthesis of ethanol from rattlesnake acid, nitric acid and mercury. Analysis of color reaction of hydrazine led scientists to the discovery of nitrogen-free radicals (highly active groups of atoms with an unpaired electron). B. and his colleagues have published over 90 articles devoted to studies of nitrogen compounds.

In 1774, when the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier described the role of oxygen in combustion reactions, chemists believed that this process is called "activated" (highly active, unstable) oxygen. Based on studies carried out by his predecessors for decades, he created the theory of V. dehydrogenation, based on hydrogen activation. He attributed the oxidation of many organic and inorganic compounds as the dehydrogenation (for example, removal of the hydrogen atoms of phosphorous acid or imuravinoy formation of sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide). B. objects combined organic chemistry and biochemistry, demonstrating dehydrogenation process in living cells (for example, conversion of acetates to succinic acid in yeast cells depleted oxygen).

Another topic of research scientist, where he became interested in 1912 and continued his lifelong concerns the chemistry of bile acids - substances found in the gallbladder, and promote the absorption of lipids. Using classical methods of organic chemistry, deprived of the opportunity to use such advanced technology research as spectrometry, chromatography and X-ray analysis, V. undertook what he later described as "a long and unspeakably exhausting crossing of the barren desert of structure." The fact that cholic, deoxycholic and lithocholic acid can be converted to acid holanovuyu, pointed out that these bile acids possess the same carbon skeleton and differ only in the number of attached hydroxyl (-OH) groups. Around the same time Adolf Windaus turned cholesterol holanovuyu acid, thus demonstrating the close structural relationship between bile acids and cholesterol. Then a group of scientists under the direction of the next step is carried out - the splitting of bile acids, which led to inconclusive results regarding carbon rings sizes. In 1932, English chemist Otto Rosenheim and King Harold by X-ray crystallography showed that all these substances are steroids (organic compounds with a structure consisting of four carbon acids). B. noted that, since bile acids bind to fats and hydrocarbons to form a colloidal solution in water, a physiological function of bile acids is the translation of dietary fat in an aqueous medium.

In 1927, scientist and Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for studies of the structure of bile acids and many similar substances" was awarded. In his opening remarks on behalf of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences XG Sederbaum stressed the importance of solving the problem B. that Sederbaum called, "without doubt, the most difficult of all, what ever faced organic chemistry." Noting that "B. Failed to get rich from the bile acid, which can be regarded as a starting material to produce bile acids "Sederbaum compared it with similar discoveries made Windaus:" When ... Windaus received the same starting material, holanovuyu acid from cholesterol, it is clear indicating a close relationship between cholesterol and bile acids. "

In other works V. studied the chemistry of substances found in nature: morphine and strychnine, curare alkaloids and lobeline, poisonous cyclopentides - phalloidin and amanitin - allocated from the pale toadstool, the poison toadstools and butterfly wing pigment (pterins).

In 1908 W. married Josephine Bartmann. They had three sons (one of them, Theodore, to determine the exact structure of phalloidin) and a daughter, who married Theodore Linena. B. was able to achieve a lot in his life. He was a man of energy spurting through the edge and extreme efficiency, B. also loved to draw and play music and are often involved in home musical performances. V. Died at age 80 in Starnberg (Germany).

Famous for his encyclopedic knowledge of chemistry, a scientist for 20 years was the editor of "Annals Libigs der Chemie