Date of Birth: 08/20/1833
Place of birth: North Bend
Citizenship: United States
Benjamin Harrison, grandson of the ninth president of the United States, William Henry Harrison, can be described as the most insignificant president of the "Golden Age". He was born August 20, 1833, grew up in rural Ohio, and was, like Cleveland, brought up in the Presbyterian faith. However, unlike his predecessor, he as president, strictly adhered to the rules of his religion. Faced with a choice between the dignity of the priest and jurisprudence, he decided to become a lawyer and moved to Indianapolis, Indiana. He remained faithful to the church as a deacon and preacher, Sunday school, and along with the legal work contributed to the Republican Party, while the civil war decidedly changed his life. In July 1862 an officer and he joined the army because of their qualities of leadership promoted in the short term to brigadier general. Military successes have made it an interesting candidate for the Republican governor in Indiana. Harrison repeatedly refused this post, but he agreed that he was elected in 1881 in the State Senate.
Harrison did not have big ambitions, he lost a re-election in 1887, but around him there were some influential politicians and financiers, to raise it to the candidate for the presidency. Not to attract everyone`s attention the past Harrison, a complete lack of political scandals and moral purity makes it a great compromise candidate for elections in 1888.
The Republican Party had a good candidate, but chose the wrong president. Harrison had little political experience, but he was convinced of his competence. As a deeply religious man, in his election, he could only see the work of God. His tenure was held without lifts, the policy was weak and without direction. Harrison could not and did not want to run the party leader. Rather than engage in political issues, understand myself at this time just as the superior of the country of the HR. In the first 18 months of the presidency he has been extremely busy in 1700 filling the position of government officials, right up to the head of post. He completely ignored the most important to this criterion when choosing a political purpose use, and attach great importance to competence and integrity, and thereby insulted the whole party. Perhaps the most fraught with consequences of the decision was the appointment of thirty years of New Yorker Theodore Roosevelt to the civil service in the federal commission. In this service, Roosevelt founded the federally-political career.
The first reaction of the party was a shock, then the rejection. In the next four years, it is hardly possible to speak of the president politics. He was not worthy of a mention of the political program, nor the desire to indulge in a conflict with Congress. The President would be a loner, he lacked the appeal, he was cold and reserved, so that it was impossible to establish personal contacts with him. In his annual address on the state of the nation Harrison included its proposals. Congress with surprising regularity ignored them. After he threw the most powerful weapon, the power of patronage, and spoke out against the use of the right of veto from him is not waiting for any resistance activities of the legislature.
With his wife, Carolyn Scott, her grandfather, their own children and grandchildren president almost imperceptibly lived in the White House, where the rhythm of life determined by family piety. Even when choosing cabinet members to Harrison the most important criterion was membership in the Presbyterian Church. With the exception of James Blaine, who after a long period of pressure and political maneuvering again became foreign minister and wanted to establish himself as a kind of prime minister to the next election to achieve, finally, the higher the post, none of the political celebrities did not get a single chance. 51 th Congress (1888-90), which was dominated by Republicans, was given complete freedom. He carried out the main points of the election program of the Republican, the president did not have any objections. Harrison knew the constitution in the sense that the legislature has the most powerful position in the government. The President felt obliged to the national program, and Congress implemented it. The result was the federal budget, which for the first time exceeded one billion dollars, and the legislature was given the nickname "billion Congress." Under the leadership of William McKinley House of Representatives issued Fees Act, which rates leapt to unexpected heights. Nevertheless, at the initiative of Blaine was introduced the principle of reciprocity, which authorized the President to enter into agreements with other countries on the mutual duties and by the decrees kontrolirovatih compliance. So the chances were provided by the US in the markets, especially in Latin America.
"Silver block" within the Republican Party demanded the removal of restrictions from the silver, and the representatives of the Republican Party from the East only monetary gold standard was considered. Harrison is not clearly outlined its position in Congress, so that both sides do not know where and with whom the president. It is not the President`s participation in the July 1890 Sherman act on the value of silver has become law. If the president vetoed, then the law would fail. However, after he had lung doubts approved the law, the Treasury was obliged every month to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver, t. E. Almost all US products. As a result, the gold reserves of the federal government greatly reduced. Unfortunately, the price of silver fell, the ratio of its value to gold sharply deteriorated, and therefore, changed the value of the dollar. However, the expected economic effect is not given. The law brought alliance huge losing trade, which had to compensate for the next administration.
The law on pensions for Civil War veterans, who immediately raised to two-thirds of payments to union pensions, contributed to a further reduction in excess of federal cash register. In the United States history, it was at the time the most expensive law. From excess at Cleveland soon, but the deficit remained. The extraordinary unanimity prevailed in the Congress on the issue of limitation of trusts. The progressive monopolization of the economy concerned about the majority of Americans, regardless of their regional origin and political orientation. Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890, which is valid today, was adopted almost unanimously. But Harrison has not implemented the provisions contained therein. The initiative came mainly from local prosecutors, the president has not filed a single case. In the elections to Congress in 1891 the Republicans lost their majority in the House of Representatives. Since the Senate was dominated still the Republican Party, the two chambers have been neutralized. In such circumstances, it was impossible to take no for an important bill.
Foreign policy Harrison wore operetta character. Blaine was aimed at the Pan American Union, which will open to the United States and the Latin American market was given a chance to compete with the United Kingdom. He called the Congress of American States in Washington, the result of which was a numerous public events and the base of the bureau. And in other areas of foreign policy administration Harrison you have not created anything significant. There were problems with some European countries, including Germany, which prevented the flooding of their own markets from cheaper US pork supposedly hygienic reasons. Conflicts with Canada and the United Kingdom relating to the hunting of seals, swelled further. The most important event of external relations was in deep crisis with Chile (after the US government intervened in the internal affairs of the country, and two American sailors were killed there in October 1891). In protest of the Washington government and the claim for damages the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs reacted insulting note. The crisis has increased the threat of war in January 1892, averted only thanks to the assignment of the Chilean government. All this history has proven the world rudeness foreign policy and Blaine Harrison, but nevertheless, showed that America has taken a leading role in the Western Hemisphere. Nationalistic manifestations among the American population were the forerunners of the national intoxication that gripped America six years later, during the war with Spain.
Refusal of protection policies and reluctance to lead the party in Harrison largely contributed to the growing divergence of factions within the party. Republican leaders in the House of Deputies Thomas B. Reed and other leading party politicians have made every effort to prevent his nomination in 1892.. But they did not have a candidate from the opposition, as Blaine was forced to give up for health reasons. With the support of delegates from the southern states Garrison without a lot of effort has been nominated as a candidate, but when the two weeks before the election in 1892 of tuberculosis his wife died, lost all desire for this. Harrison lost to Cleveland, which succeeded brilliantly secondary recovery. He`s got the advantage of more than 380 000 votes and 277 to 145 votes in the electoral college. And more involved in politics, was a speaker and a member of the arbitration commission in the border conflict between Great Britain and Venezuela. March 13, 1901, almost forgotten by all, died of pneumonia.