Benedetto Croce

Picture of Benedetto Croce

Date of Birth: 02/25/1866

Age: 86

Place of birth: Pescasseroli

Citizenship: Italy


Born February 25, 1866 Pescasseroli, near L `Aquila (Italy), in the family, who owned the land in the central part of the country. Parents Croce died in 1883 as a result of a volcanic eruption. Lived in Naples, he was educated at the University of Naples. Disappointed in university education, many engaged in self-education. A university professor in 1902 - 1920. He became a senator in 1910. From June 1920 to July 1921 he was Minister of Education in D.Dzholitti office. The ideologist and the leader of the Italian liberals in the 1930 - 1940-ies, open opponent of the fascist regime of Mussolini. After the defeat of Italy in World War II Croce entered the Committee of National Liberation. Croce died in Naples November 20, 1952.

Croce - most prominent representative of Italian idealism, grew directly out "Neapolitan" version of Hegelianism 19. (B.Spaventa, F. De Sanctis), as well as from more distant source - the philosophy of the Italian thinker of the 18th century. D.Viko. For this area is characterized by the idealism of Hegel`s absolute negation and affirmation as the only being creative and generating itself reason. Perhaps the most essential for understanding the formation of views Croce his autobiography (Contributo alla critica di me stesso, 1951). In the early period of creativity Croce was influenced by Marxism, was a pupil Labriola. Philosopher himself called his doctrine of "absolute idealism".

Philosophy Croce systematic manner set out in 4 volumes under the general title of the spirit Philosophy (Filosofia dello spirito). The first two volumes - Aesthetics as the science of expression and as a general linguistics (Estetica come scienza dell`espressione e linguistica generale, 1902), and logic as the science of pure concept (Logica come scienza del concetto puro, 1909), devoted to describing the theoretical activity of the mind, including artistic creativity and conceptual thinking; the last volume - Philosophy Practice: Economics and Ethics (Filosofia della pratica. Economia ed etica, 1909) and Theory and history of historiography (Teoria e storia della storiografia, 1917), contain an analysis of the practical side of reason - economic activity and ethics - which finds its highest expression in stories. Among other works Croce - History as thought and the action (La storia come pensiero e come azione, 1938); Philosophy, poetry, history (Filosofia, poesia, storia, 1951) and many others. The most significant contribution of the thinker in aesthetics and the philosophy of history.

According to Croce, art is an expression of the creative mind. Creativity - the most important activity of the mind, without knowledge is impossible. Thus, the art - the beginning of any theory. In this initial perception internally experienced by intuition finds outward expression. To express themselves not only artists, but all people. The measure of success is a wonderful self-expression. This theory is a kind of break with the idea of ??the beautiful as a property of a physical object, and gives an example of a more general rejection of naturalism, neo-Hegelianism. In many studies Croce applied this approach to the interpretation of art and literature, establishing a whole school in art history and art criticism.

Philosophy history Croce is also a revolt against naturalism. History as this creation is an act of thinking and therefore also a philosophy. History - it is a philosophy, and philosophy - is history. In fact, history is the highest form of philosophy, the culmination of the development of the spirit, begins with artistic expression. Since, according to Croce, there is only reason, historical narrative is always philosophical in nature, because the present is that interprets the past and in this interpretation it is literally the creative. Describe the past - it means to make a value judgment in the present; each generation must re-write history. Therefore, the story - it is a philosophy. At the same time, the value judgment is a manifestation of the creative nature of the mind, and that its activity becomes part of the history of the mind. Therefore philosophy - it history.

Croce has written numerous papers and essays on the history, literature and politics, and has made a significant contribution to the historiography, the founder of appearing "ethical-political school", as well as in literature and languages. He was the founder in 1903 (with D.Dzhentile) famous cultural magazine "Criticism" ( "the La Critica"), which published almost all of his works, the director of "Laterza" publishing house in Bari, the founder of the Italian Institute for Historical Research in Naples.