Apollonius Of Tyana
Apollonius was born in a respectable and wealthy Greek family, but the exact dates of birth and death are unknown. His main biographer, Philostratus (Philostratus the Elder) calls years of life of the philosopher with 3 BC on 97 AD Most scholars agree that he was about the same age as Jesus Christ. Illz Charles (Charles Eells) states that Apollonius was born three years before Jesus` birth date is also inaccurate. However, in his work Philostratus` Life of Apollonius Tianskogo` describes him standing in the court of the king Vardan I (Vardanes I), who ruled between 40 and 47 years.
At the age of about 20 years in his biography gaping five-year stain and then Apollonius travels to Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia) and Iran (Iran). Philostratus also mentions the emperors Nero (Nero), Vespasian (Vespasian), Titus (Titus), Domitian (Domotianus), Nerva (Nerva). Given this information, the time of his adult life, you can restrict the 15th and 98th years BC
Apollonius attributed to many works, some of which are lost from the others remain only fragments, the authenticity of which still need to be proved. Porphyry (Porphyry) and Iamblichus (Iamblichus) refer to written by Pythagoras (Pythagoras) the biography of Apollonius of Tyana, who before our time is not preserved; as this is mentioned in the biography of the Court, the Byzantine encyclopaedia. Apollonius wrote a treatise `On zhertvah`, which remained only one, but perhaps the real fragment.
If you refer to the composition of Philostratus as a colorful fiction, it turns out that the real, historic Apollonia we know almost nothing. As he wrote James Francis (James Francis), `the most that can be said -Apollony appears before us an amazing ascetic, philosopher and employee - type, familiar to the western part of the Roman imperii`.
We can assume that he was a true Pythagorean, and in conformity with the Pythagorean tradition, he lived poorly, do not eat meat. All his life he spent in the cities of Asia Minor and northern Syria, although his letter saying that he also traveled, like many philosophers of the time. As for his philosophical writings, there is a very interesting part of his treatise `On zhertvah`, in which he expresses his views. Apollonius was convinced that God, in the most beautiful creature in the world, can not affect the prayers and sacrifices, he is not committed to the veneration of the people. To know God is possible, using intelligence (so-called `Nus`), because He is a pure Nus, Nus and -naivysshy gift given to man.
Filostratovu biography of Apollonius gathered and systematized John Stobo (John Stobaeus), which included the expected letter to the philosopher. Some of them are presented in the full version, some - only fragments. Some of the letters were also preserved in medieval manuscripts. It is difficult to determine which ones are genuine and which ones - no. Some of the letters are forgeries or literary exercises assembled in collections. It is alleged that Philostratus himself forged a part of letters and included in his work, while the rest were senior to return fakes, which were in his possession. All of these arguments are based on prejudices about miraculous events, and despite the fact that the works of Philostratus - a reliable source, we have to make a difficult choice unscientific - believe it or not.