Alihan Bukeyhanov

Picture of Alihan Bukeyhanov

Age: 71

Place of birth: Moscow

Citizenship: Kazakhstan


Bukeikhanov Alikhan Nurmukhamed-uly was born in Karkaraly District of Karaganda region in 1866, was shot in Moscow on September 27, 1937. He studied at the Omsk Technical School, the Faculty of Economics Forestry Institute in St. Petersburg, after which led to the completion of the Omsk School of Forestry teaching and research work.

In 1903 in St. Petersburg went 18 volume collection under the title "Russian. Full geographic description of our region." In this volume, dedicated to Kazakhstan, one of the authors was Bukeikhanov, who wrote the section "Distribution of the population of the Kyrgyz (t. E. Kazakh) on the territory of the region, its ethnographic composition, life and culture". In this section, he gave an overview of the culture of the Kazakh people, drawing materials "folk literature" has to offer especially in the analysis of the poem "Kozy-Korpesh and Bayan." It is noteworthy that he specifically identifies Abaya, appreciating it as "a representative of the new trend" in the Kazakh poetry. Bukeikhanov and later tried to present Abai Russian reader, and it is no coincidence, as a generation of intellectuals Kazakhs beginning of XX century., Advocated the state self-determination of Kazakh people, strongly emphasizes its ideological affinity with Abai, sought broadly to master the cultural heritage of the past as an impetus to awakening and the development of national consciousness.

In 1904, he worked as a part Bukeikhanov F.A.Scherbiny expedition, to prepare materials for a wide resettlement of Russian peasants to the land of the Kazakhs. Since 1905, it consisted of the Constitutional-Democratic Party, held a meeting in Uralsk and Semipalatinsk to organize the Kazakh branch of the Cadet Party. In 1905 he participated in the Karkalinskom protest movement against tsarist oppression, organized 14,500 people signing a petition, known as Karkalinskaya petition. In 1905, at the Semipalatinsk district was elected to the First State Russian Duma, he participated in the drafting of a document called the Vyborg manifesto condemning the dissolution of the Tsarist Duma. During intense activity against the colonial policy of the tsarist autocracy he was in prison in Semipalatinsk and Pavlodar. In 1905-1907 he worked in the Cadet newspapers "Irtysh", "Omsk", "Voice" as the editor. In the years 1910-1914 wrote a number of scientific articles in the "New Encyclopedic Dictionary", in the book "The forms of the national movement in modern states" article "Kazakhs". A major milestone in the effort to awaken national consciousness and organization of the Kazakhs among them education and training was the publication of "Kazakh" newspaper, in what participated along with A.Bukeyhanovym A.Baytursynov and M.Dulatov. It was a wonderful trio, which marked the birth of a democratic, patriotic and progressive Kazakh intelligentsia. Under the pseudonym "Kyr Balas" ( "Son of the steppes", "Stepnyak") he published in the newspaper "Kazak" article "parties in the Duma", "Duma and the Kazakhs," "August Bebel". In 1916 he headed the department Bukeikhanov backward peoples nationwide Zemsky Congress. Idea zemstvos a wide local government, existing along with the central government and its substantially complementary - an important element of the political program Bukeikhan. There is evidence that his name appears in the list of names of the St. Petersburg Masonic lodge "Polar Star". The base of the Samara group of Masons coincides with the meeting Bukeikhanov with Kerensky. There is also the view that the appointment in 1917 A. H Bukeikhanov Commissioner of the Provisional Government in Kazakhstan took place at the behest of the Masonic fraternity, was at the helm. Founded in the year .1910 bed "Ursa Minor" otherwise known as "the organization of Kerensky." Masonic movement that emerged in Russia after 1905, there has been close contact with the French Freemasonry. As a rule, the local administration of destination under Kerensky determined Masonic connections, thanks to which is recommended above all "brothers". Masonic organization as well as the bourgeois parties, in which it had an influence, was aimed at the overthrow of the autocracy and the seizure of political power. A.N.Bukeyhan believed that it was through Freemasonry he manages to achieve its goals: together with Russia and under the auspices of Kazakhstan to achieve autonomy, which includes its own parliament, government, ie the right to financial management and the availability of its own legislation, and a number of other attributes of independent statehood.

But his path to the Cadets and the Masons dispersed after the February revolution, as he ceased to find support among them in the most important issue - the granting of autonomy to the Kazakh people, as well as other key issues (land use and the relationship of church and state). His motives, he outlined in his article "Why I left the Cadet Party," noting as a fact discrepancies aspiration party comrades and the Masonic "brethren," "preserve the empire under the existing borders."

Self-determination, AN Bukeikhan creates a national political party "Alash" ideological premises which were laid by the newspaper "Kazakh", released in 1913. In December 1917, on the initiative of Bukeikhan on II All-Kazakh Kurultai founding was proclaimed "Alash Orda", ie. E. Autonomy of the Kazakhs. He participated in the congress of the Siberian autonomists in Tomsk, where it was decided to grant a part of the Siberian republic Kazakhs autonomy.

In the civil war unleashed by the Bolsheviks, and Alash-A.N.Bukeyhan ordintsy were "wrong side" together with Siberian governors almost to the end of 1919, when they found themselves face to face with a new strengthened their positions of power. Alash ordintsam had to go to the only acceptable, although an extremely difficult decision - to enter into an agreement with the ideological and political opponents in exchange for a declaratory promise of preserving national autonomy. Personally A.N.Bukeyhan was forced to give up in these conditions from active political and public activities. He considered illegal and terrorist action of Lenin and the Bolshevik seizure of power by armed. With her condemnation he made in "common Siberian Congress," published in 1917 in the newspaper "Saryarka".

Since the idea of ??autonomy is not rejected by the Soviet authorities, and Bukeikhan considered it possible to work on a legal basis in the sphere of culture. The platform of Marxism and economic materialism, appeared to him, gave the conditions for a critical approach to national policy, veiled phrases about proletarian internationalism, and in fact - imperial, Russification, and to methods of force-oppressive spaces of socialism. But even purely kulturnicheskaya activities A. Bukeikhan and other intellectuals who have risen to national identity crest growth was seen not just as the opposition and dissent, as well as "counter-revolutionary struggle against the Soviet power." Since the connection to the "Alash Orda" was one of the standard accusations of the Stalinist regime against the intellectual elite of the Kazakh people have a need for clarification. The historical term "Alash" was a common name for those ancient families who subsequently received ethnonym "Kazakh". This is named after the party was formed at the initiative of prominent Kazakh politician Alikhan Bukeikhanov and aims to the achievement of independence, the Kazakhs at the level of autonomy within Russia. At the heart of "Alash" party program it was proclaimed the first independent state in 1918, which at first view of the imperial policy of the Bolsheviks entered with them into the conflict. Achieved between the Bolsheviks and the "Alash-horde" compromise was subsequently trampled by the Bolsheviks, and the slogan of "Alash-ordinets nationalist, enemy of the people" became the basis of total repression against those who were "brain of the nation."

The most fundamental political heritage A.Bukeyhanova - the idea of ??the nation-state self-determination, it was stand by him and his colleagues, who gave all the forces at its implementation, proclaimed in December 1917, the government "Alash Orda", and eventually paid for it own life.