Date of Birth: 04/18/1848
Place of birth: a. Varzuga
Biography of Alexandra Yakovlevna Efimenko (nee Stavrovskaya) was filled with meetings with interesting people, like reflections on the historical past, and over the contemporaneous events.
She was born in April 1848 in the harsh Arkhangelsk region (p. Varzuga, Kola district), in the family of a civil servant. We lived unpretentious, to say the very least. From early childhood, Alexander experienced the price of hard work - first physical and then mental. In 1857, she enters the Arkhangelsk female school, which graduated with honors in 1863. Since then, begins its long-term educational activities. With an inquisitive mind, trying to explain the phenomena of reality, for which the existing books and manuals clearly not enough, a young girl increasingly deeper into the study of unpublished documents, met with representatives of the peoples of the North, exploring their way of life and customs.
Soon Alexander met the man who became her husband, a loyal friend, soul mate, a teacher. It was Peter Savich Efimenko - exiled from Ukraine, in the recent past - an active participant in Kharkiv and Kyiv secret society, then - student of the Moscow University. (Populist on their ideological views and ethnographer Scientific interests P.S.Efimenko different high workability, breadth of vision, a good heart, the ability to attract the scientific work of talented pupils and to direct their efforts in a certain direction. Especially valuable were his bibliographic guidance and advice industry ethnography and Ukrainian history.) in 1870, young people were married in the church holmogorskoj. Poor health Peter Savich, constant surveillance police officers, difficult financial position and other evils and troubles haunt a young family, but in spite of that, Alexander Y. lot of hard work. In Arkhangelsk, it examines archival materials, explores the local dialect, continues to get acquainted with the customs of the peoples of the North. The "Arkhangelsk province news", in other newspapers and magazines, her articles are published, in which it asserts itself as a talented scientist, capable not only to collect archival material, but also compile, analyze it, make their own conclusions. The emergence of the new name has not gone unnoticed in the scientific and social environment. The press published the first responses and reviews A.Ya.Efimenko works, where it contributed to the development history of the indigenous northern peoples is highly appreciated.
For a long time the couple Efimenko petitioned the authorities for permission to travel to the central regions of Russia. Finally, permission was granted. In 1873 PS A.Ya.Efimenko and arrived in Voronezh, where he lived for about a year. Continuing here to conduct research, Alexander Y. based on previously collected documentary material prepared and submitted to journals a number of articles in which developed his views on the history of marriage and family relations. The most significant of its achievements while work related "Artel in the Arkhangelsk region," published in the first edition of "Collection of materials on cooperatives of Russia" (SPb., 1873). The appearance of this work was not an accident: it was then in the populist media confirmed the opinion of the artisanal organization of agricultural production as the main and determining the form of the transition to the new system. Contrary to the opinion of Alexander Y. showed that the co-operative in terms of development of capitalism was merely a tool to enrich the rich peasants, and disclosed the reasons for the occurrence of this form of lifestyle and organization of production among the peasants of the Russian North.
Scientific papers A.Ya.Efimenko written and published in 70 years, served as a prelude to the fundamental monograph "The peasant land tenure in the far North," published in 1882-1883. in the journal "Russian idea", and then went down in a collection of works by Alexandra Yakovlevna, entitled "Studies of national life" (M., 1884. Vol. 1). In the monograph was preceded by a huge preparatory work. "Belonging to the most extreme fans of the people and their communities - Efimenko wrote in his book - I did not fear for two years fully immerse themselves in the study of archival documents, to gather themselves the desired knowledge from its own sources." To her surprise, she found that the understanding of the structure of peasant land tenure prevailing at that time in historiography, far from the realities of life. An analysis of new archival materials - so-called "ver