Aleksander Vostokov

Picture of Aleksander Vostokov

Date of Birth: 03/27/1781

Age: 82

Place of birth: Ahrensburg

Citizenship: Germany


Initial spoken his language was German; but seven years he had known in Russian fairy tales and listened to Garrison Sergeant Savely. Surrendered to the St. Petersburg land gentry housing, it is completely Russified, and for 13 years he wrote poetry. He showed great ability, but it hurt a lot of stuttering. In view of this the authorities transferred him in 1794 to the Academy of Fine Arts, where he learned French. After graduating from the course, he was left for three years a boarder; but he was not attracted to art. Logs Free Society of Lovers of Literature, Science, and the Arts (see. The XI, 535), of which he became in 1801, the first literary and scientific works of his. His poems were collected and published them under the title: "Experiments lyrical" (St. Petersburg, 1805 - 1806; new edition 1821). They are artistically very weak, though not devoid of thoughts and sometimes animation, such as "By Harpocrates"; curious Vostokova unsuccessful attempt to write those meters that are used in classical poetry. Value is low and critical articles Vostokova, which he wrote as a "censor" of society and which are extracted from magazines E. Petukhov; analysis applies only to the correctness or incorrectness of any expression. Service he was held in the Commission to formulate laws, the Public Library and the Department of Religious Affairs. Already in 1803 he began to study the monuments of Old Russian and Church Slavonic languages. In 1810, he was already well acquainted with the monuments such as the "Russian Truth", "Instruction of Vladimir Monomakh", "Chronicle of Nestor", "Lay", "Collection of Svyatoslav 1076". In 1810, he was reading (probably in the society lovers of literature), his translation notes Dobrovsky on reasoning Schlozer of the Old Slavonic language, equipped with their own notes. In 1808 he joined the "Brief Guide to Russian Grammar" I. Born a few notes which reveal the future in-depth and accurate observer and handle linguistic facts. The "St. Petersburg Bulletin" in 1812 they placed "The experience of Russian versification", released separately (St. Petersburg, 1817). For the first time Vostokov quite right sized, that is, the stress in the popular verse. In 1820, there was work Vostokova, which gave him European fame: "Discourse on the Slavic language, which serves as an introduction to the grammar of this language" (in "Proceedings of the Society of Russian literature lovers at the Moscow University", ie XVII.). There Vostokov have chronological place monuments Church Slavonic language, defined its difference from the old Russian, have a value of nasal and voiceless vowels, use of broad vowels after velar, the presence of nasal vowels in Polish, explained education endings adjectives found in Church Slavonic absence gerunds and cash supine, he called dostigatelnym inclination. All these findings were complete news not only for Russian, but also for European scientists; Only dostigatelnoe inclination noted earlier Dobrovskij named supine. This scientist, print, while "Institutiones linguae Slavicae dialecti veteris", reading the hard Vostokova, wanted to destroy the beginning of its work, and has not done so, only losing beliefs Kopitar. Russian Academy and other learned societies have chosen Vostokova a member. Then Vostokov engaged description Metropolitan of Kiev Eugene manuscripts and Lavrentiev list Nestor chronicles; He participated in the "Bibliography Sheets" Koppen, which placed, among other things, an article about supraslkoy manuscript. By 1827 relates his article: "The grammatical explanations in three articles Freising Manuscripts" (in the "Meeting of Slovenian sites outside of Russia"), important both impeccable edition of the text, and in true still comments. Of great importance was the publication Vostokova legend: "Killing the holy Slava, Czech prince" ( "Moscow Journal", 1827, number 17). Freed in 1824 to serve in the various institutions, east, knotted earlier intercourse with the Count NP Rumyantsev, had the opportunity to engage in a description of his collection of manuscripts. Upon the death of Count Rumyantsev his collection came into the treasury, and the East in 1828 g.byl appointed him to head. After spending some time keeper of the manuscripts in the Imperial Public Library, East was determined by the senior librarian of the Rumyantsev Museum. In the same year Vostokov published two grammar: "Reduced Russian grammar" and "Russian grammar in shape abbreviated grammar Full details This is - remarkable for the time textbooks, which, however, said the fear of Vostokova boldly go against the established philological tradition in.. . 1841 - 1842 years under his editorship published "historical acts related to Russia, learned from foreign archives and libraries" (2 m.) In 1842 he published "Description of Russian and Slavic manuscripts Rumyantsev Museum", which has a huge price. ; only after this work has been made possible the study of ancient Russian literature and Russian antiquities In 1843 came an equally important his work: "Ostrom Gospel with the application of the Greek text of the Gospels and with grammatical explanations" (St. Petersburg), is now lost its value due. new phototype edition. At the same time it was written analysis of the Reims Gospel. Of the remaining works Vostokova issued most vocabulary. Yet in 1835 he was appointed "a committee member for the publication of a dictionary by alphabetical order"; but especially hard he began to dictionaries when in 1841 he was appointed full academician. In 1847 he came under his editorship of II volume "Dictionary of Church Slavonic and Russian language", in 1852 - "The experience of the regional Russian language" ( "Supplement" to it, St. Petersburg, 1858). The responsibility for these works largely removed from Vostokova because the 2nd Department of the Academy of Sciences imposed on them by the hand. Permanent employment in Vostokova was "Slavic-Russian etymological dictionary" for many years, it started around 1802 and perhaps even earlier, and for its time in many respects remarkable, but remains unpublished (see pp. Bulich "Essay on the history of linguistics in Russia, "that I, 653 -. 667). In return, he published his extensive "Dictionary of Church Slavonic language" (St. Petersburg, 1858 - 1861, 2 m.). Together with the "Grammar of Church Slavonic language" ( "Scientific Notes", 1863, VII), this work is a capital acquisition of Russian science. February 8, 1864 Vostokov died. Merit Vostokova been recognized both in Russia and abroad. Specially philological works Vostokova Sreznevskii collected in the book "Philological observations Vostokova AH" (St. Petersburg, 1865), where it is made in the introduction and evaluation. Academic correspondence Vostokova published as Sreznevsky ( "Collection II branch of the Imperial Academy of Sciences", ie. The V, Issue 2, St. Petersburg, 1873). The person Vostokova remarkable feature is its love for the Russian language, which forced him to change even the name of his native Ostenek the surname Vostokova. Amazing modesty Vostokova was the reason that the Academy is so generous in tangible reward in relation to its members, avoided him. So when ineptly Secretary PI Academy Sokolov ( "osudar" - satire Voeikov "Madhouse") was issued "for the tireless work and zeal" 13,000 rubles Vostokov awarded the same prizes, as well as 14-year-old girl Shakhov, received 500 rubles for poetry. - See Sreznevskii in "solemn meeting of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 29 December 1864". (St. Petersburg, 1865, pp 86 - 138.); his "Works and anniversary Vostokova" ( "Scientific notes 2 compartments of the Imperial Academy of Sciences", Book II, Issue 1, 1856); N. Korelkin "Alexander Vostokov his scientific and literary activity" ( "Notes of the Fatherland", 1855,