Date of Birth: 11/17/1938
Place of birth: a. Valuevo
Born September 17, 1938 in the village of Valuevo Zavitinsky District of the Khabarovsk Territory. Father - Kalinin Tikhon T. (1911 born.). Mother - Ekaterina Nikolaevna Kalinina (1918 born.). Wife - Kuleshov Tamara (1933 g.rozhd.). Son - Kalinin Andrey Y. (1971 g.rozhd.).
From 1955 to 1973, YT Kalinin, he served in the Armed Forces. In 1965 he graduated from the Higher Military Academy of Chemical Defense, defended his thesis for the degree of candidate of chemical sciences. In 1973 he was appointed assistant to the scientific and technical Glavmikrobioprom board member of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and in 1974 he became deputy director of the Scientific Research Institute of Biotechnology (1974-1975).
One of the main directions of scientific activity YT Kalinin was to study the relationship between the structure of biologically active compounds and functions in the cells. Based on years of theoretical and experimental studies conducted by them in this regard, scientific approaches to the creation of modern methods of instrumental analysis of microorganisms in environmental objects were formulated. These approaches successfully implemented it created a scientific school in the State Research Center "State Research Institute of Biological Instrument".
YT Kalinin was the founder, the first director of the Institute (1975-1980) and for 25 years is its scientific director. Under his leadership, created here the first domestic immuno test systems for the detection of pathogens of especially dangerous infections of viral and bacterial origin. These developments have become a kind of prototype of modern test systems to diagnose hepatitis A and B, and HIV. Developed modern methods and instruments for microanalysis created using photo effects and chemiluminescence, gas and liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, hromatemass spectrometry. Almost all development went into production and produced at present the domestic industry (photometers to monitor the status of sugar in the blood of patients with diabetes, Class chromatographs "Crystal" for analytical laboratories, photoluminescent sensors for recording the analytical effect of immunological reactions, etc..). With the direct participation of YT Kalinin program was created, performed basic research and organized to ensure academic and industrial research institutions with special reagents, instruments and equipment. Series production of reagents for genetic engineering work (exchange of nucleic acid enzymes, nucleotides, nucleosides, including protected, sorbents for cleaning the biopolymers and cells), the equipment for the biotechnological synthesis of biologically active substances.
In 1980, YT Kalinin headed the All-Union Industrial Association of biological drugs (1980-1983), then was appointed First Deputy Chief Glavmikrobioprom the Council of Ministers of the USSR. Since 1986 he is the Deputy Minister of Medical and Microbiological Industry of the USSR.
The Ministry YT Kalinin responsible for the application of advances in basic research in molecular biology, genetics and genetic engineering in the health care practice. The focus is initially given to the creation of immunobiological preparations by recombinant technology. Previously, vaccines and immune basic drugs was prepared from pathogens or strains, or from blood that does not exclude the possibility of re-infection. In a relatively short period of time managed to form immunobiological industry subsector, based on recent advances in molecular biology, chemistry and genetics. Already in the late 1980s there were the first domestic recombinant vaccines, interferons and their inductors. It was established mass production of disposable syringes, taking systems and blood transfusions and others. Significantly expanded production of antibiotics, blood substitutes and infusion solutions.
The first steps in the industry coincided with the appearance on the territory of the Soviet Union, cases of HIV infection. In this situation, it was necessary to solve the problem of the laboratory diagnosis of HIV, thereby putting a barrier to the spread of this dangerous disease. Thanks to the good soldering ministry officials with representatives of academic science as a result of action taken by then managed to significantly reduce the potential negative consequences.
In 1985, YT Kalinin was one of the initiators of the interbranch scientific and technical complex (ISTC) "Biogen", which have been combined leading scientific schools of the RAS and branch institutes. Since then, the domestic biological sciences occupied a leading place in the world not only on fundamental topics, but also in the practical application of their results. In collaboration with leading scientists of the Russian Academy of Sciences YT Kalinin made a great contribution to the development of new areas of molecular biology and genetics, which led to the formation of modern biotechnology.
For a cycle of works on fundamental problems of biotechnology YT Kalinin, together with a group of scientists in 1985 awarded the Lenin Prize in science and technology.
Remembering his teachers and staff, Yuri T. calls names of prominent scientists - AP Alexandrov, Y. Ovchinnikov, AA Baev, GK Scriabin, EI Chazova, VM Zhdanov, VI Pokrovsky, RV Petrova, DC Lviv, IP Ashmarina, BF Semenov, AA Vorobyov. They, he said, helped him emerge as a scientist and organizer of science. With much gratitude YT Kalinin recalls and work with major organized industry as DF Ustinov VD Belyaev and EP Slavskii. Thanks to their support, the country was able to open a number of modern research centers and industrial enterprises, to lay the foundations of the domestic biotechnology capacity, able to develop modern medicines and occupying a number of positions at the world level.
The major share of this potential is concentrated now in RAO "biological product", chairman of the board and general director from 1991 to 2001 was a YT Kalinin. Concern now produced more than 35 percent of medicines and medical supplies of the total volume of drugs produced in Russia.
Key activities in YT Kalinin is the problem of providing medical diabetics. Under the leadership of YT Kalinin RAO "biological product" was developed and carried out routine stipulating creation of domestic production of means of control of patients with diabetes, hypoglycemic drugs, and human insulin. Developed and mastered serial production of the entire range of technical means necessary for the diagnosis of diabetes, patients self-device (test strip for the determination of glucose in the blood, urine ketones in urine, microalbuminuria, blood glucose meters, kits for the determination of glycated hemoglobin). Kit manufactured in accordance with international standards, which allows the country to annual savings of $ 35-40 million by the cancellation of procurement set by imports.
In 1999 carried out under the supervision of YT were successfully completed Kalinin research on the creation of producer strain of a fusion protein containing human proinsulin, and testing technology spin-off from his insulin. Created in these studies recombinant plasmid DNA encoding the hybrid polypeptide, a strain of bacteria - producing the polypeptide and the technology of genetically engineered human insulin obtain respective protected by patents, and the results of these studies Russian Ministry of Health recommended for clinical trials. From January 2002 begins the production of genetically engineered human insulin in a pilot plant.
For the first time in Russia in the system of scientific-production association "biological product" has been launched as the industrial production of alpha-2-interferon, interleukin-1 beta, erythropoietin, and a number of other useful for health and agriculture products.
As you know, the 1990s have become an ordeal for the Russian industry of medicines and related branches of science, especially biotechnology.
The situation was really very hard. The pharmaceutical industry was the only industry, which the government set limits on the profitability of production. And this at a time when interest rates on bank loans up to several hundred, when the prices for raw materials and energy resources grew 5-8 times faster than the prices of medicines. Industry characterized by low productivity, outdated nomenclature. The pricing policy was set so as to pharmacies and distributors become profitable to sell imported medicines. As a result of the Russian pharmaceutical market in a situation where about half of the medicines made foreign-made medicines, and 60-70 percent of the domestic production of medicines presents old drugs, more than 70 percent of drugs in Russia is produced from imported raw materials and substances.
YT Kalinin was one of those who set a goal to radically change the situation. In 1995, many companies within the industry have decided to join together in an association "Rosmedprom" headed by YT Kalinin. The Association has set itself the task to develop a new strategy for development of the industry. For 3-4 years, not only managed to stop the decline in the production of medicines in the country, but also to achieve its sustainable growth. Today, many of the companies that are included at the time of the association "Rosmedprom" are the leaders of the domestic economy. And in this great merit YT Kalinin.
Since 2001, YT Kalinin is the chairman of the NGO Board of Directors of "Biotechnology - XXI Century", a member of the Presidium of the Russian Union of domestic producers (2001), a member of the Coordinating Council on priority technologies of living systems at the Ministry of Science of Russia, head of the section of space biotechnology, Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Space Academy Coordinating Board ( 1993).
Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor YT Kalinin was working hard on the training of scientific personnel. As chairman of the specialized expert council WAC (1991) and member of the Academic Council of on candidate and doctoral theses of the State Scientific Center "Institute for Biological Instrumentation" (1988) it is directly involved in the formation of training programs in the field of fundamental and applied problems of modern physical and chemical biology and gene engineering. Under his leadership, produced 8 candidate and 6 doctoral theses.
He - the author of over 200 scientific works, including more than 70 inventions and 3 monographs. The most important of its operation: "A method for producing recombinant human erythropoietin" (1998) "Method for obtaining recombinant tumor necrosis factor" (2000) "Recombinant plasmid DNA encoding the hybrid polypeptide comprising human proinsulin, and a strain of bacteria - producing a hybrid polypeptide comprising human proinsulin (1999), "immunomodulatory drugs" Betaleukin "(1999).
YT Kalinin - winner of the Lenin Prize (1985), Honored Worker of Science (1988). He was awarded the Order of Red Banner of Labor (1981), "Badge of Honor" (1976). Marked Star VI Vernadsky I degree (1999), Award of the academician IN Blokhina (2000), the Russian Federation Government Award (2001).
Yuri T. like hunting and fishing. When there is free time, enjoys playing tennis and walking with a dog. Likes to read Sholokhov, listening to songs Pahmutowa, loves landscapes Levitan. Sometimes involved in the preparation of the corporate family meals - Siberian pelmeni.
Lives and works in Moscow.