Since 1901 a member of the Latvian SDLP. In 1902-05 propagandist, secretarial. Riga desks. org-tion. In December of 1905-1906 he led peasants fighting squads Livonia. In 1906-1908 member of the Central Committee of the Social Democracy of the Latvian Territory (SDLC), a member of its press organs. The delegate of the 1st and 2nd Congresses SDLC, 5 th Party Congress (1907 under the pseudonym Donner). Feb 6. 1355 arrested until July 1914 was in hard central Riga and Vologda, and then exiled to Minusinsk Yenisei Province.
After the February Revolution of 1917 on March 3, the Chairman of the Board of Minusinsk, March Chairman Minusinskaya organization RSDLP (b), "Comrade," a newspaper editor. One of the organizers and leaders of the Congress of Soviets of Central Siberia (the beginning of September); on his proposal, the congress adopted the Bolshevik resolution on the power of the Soviets, the convening of the 2nd All-Russian Congress of Soviets. In September, the delegate of the Democratic Conference in Petrograd, a member of its Bolshevik faction. With the mandate of the RSDLP (b) in late September sent to Sevastopol to win the Bolsheviks sailors of the Black Sea Fleet. Pending passage in Sebastopol October 3-20 was in Simferopol, strengthened the city Bolshevik organization.
From 25 October is one of the leaders of the Bolshevik faction of the Sevastopol Council and its executive committee, spoke at rallies every day: at meetings of the Council and the Sevastopol Centroflot 26-27 October contributed to the adoption of resolutions of the seizure of power. In November, one of the leaders of the Congress Obschechernomorskogo navy in Sevastopol, adopted the Bolshevik. resolution of power, sending detachments of sailors and ships to fight AM Kaledin. He took part in a conference be convened Tavrich Bolsheviks. lips. on November 23-24 in Simferopol, elected member. Provincial Committee. A supporter of the seizure of power in Sevastopol armament. by, the Council of circumvention. One of the leaders of the armed uprising of sailors in Sevastopol on the night of December 16 arrest of almost all the officers and leaders of the Mensheviks and SRs, mass executions.
Since December 16 the President of the Bolshevik Military Revolutionary Committee of the city, who took power, re-elected City Council. From 18 December a member of the Presidium of the Council of the Sevastopol military and Workers` Deputies., Before. mountains. to-ta Bolsheviks. In late December 1917 - early 1918, sent warships to the assault of sailors to help the Bolsheviks Evpatoria, Yalta, Feodosiya; one red. gas. "Tavria truth." One of the main organizers and leaders of revolutionary committees and congresses of Soviets Tauride province on 28-30 January and 7-10 March 1918; elected member of the provincial them TsIK.Na provincial congress elected a member of the Provincial Committee of the Bolsheviks on March 2. He headed the Sevastopol Regional RMC. Shares responsibility for the "Red Terror" and lynchings February 21-23. Since March, 21 members of People`s Commissars of Tauris, People`s Commissar for Naval Affairs. In February - April to create and send Red Army troops to fight the room. and it. interventionists. Led the defense of Sevastopol, Simferopol and fighting under the Alma at the end of April, the evacuation of troops and fleet in Novorossiysk. In May - June, a member of the revolutionary headquarters Kuban-Black Sea republic; was wounded, ill 10 months. After the Civil War on the Soviet and economic work, from 1933 he retired.
April 4, 1936 and October 3 arrested by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR sentenced to death for alleged involvement in the counter-revolutionary Trotskyite organization. Rehabilitated in 1958