Yan Diderik Van Der Waals
Date of Birth: 11/23/1837
Place of birth: Leiden
Jan Diederik van der Waals was born in Leiden; son of Jacobus van der Waals forces, a carpenter, and Elizabeth van der Waals (nee Van den Burg). After graduating from primary and secondary school in Leiden, Jan became a primary school teacher. From 1862 to 1865 he attended the University of Leiden as an irregular student. In 1864, he received a certificate of high school teachers in mathematics and physics and taught physics at first in Deventer in 1864, and then in The Hague, where he began in 1866, the school principal.
Shortly thereafter, the van der Waals began graduate work in physics and received his doctorate at Leiden in 1873. His doctoral thesis on the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states, has received enthusiastic approval from the James Clerk Maxwell, one of the greatest physicists of the XIX century. who told about the work of the Van der Waals forces:. "She immediately put his name on a par with the most prominent names in science" This thesis, which was then translated into German and French, not only adopted the Van der Waals a reputation as a brilliant physicist, but also defined the object of his research until the end of his scientific career. Four years after receiving his doctorate, he became the first professor of physics at the newly organized University of Amsterdam, where he remained up to the resignation in 1908, handing over his business to his son.
The ideas of the Van der Waals forces are having influenced written in 1857 article by Rudolf Julius Emmanuel Clausius, German physicist, who made a great contribution to the kinetic theory of gases. According to this theory, the gas molecules move rapidly in different directions. Their attacks on the walls of the containing vessel determine the pressure of the gas, and the average velocity of the molecules (the kinetic energy) is directly related to temperature. Clausius showed how you can use this theory to deduce the law found experimentally in 1662 (when it was not yet known about the molecules) Robert Boyle, Irish physicist and chemist. Boyle`s Law states that for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, pressure capacity product obempostoyanno. If, for example, the volume decreases due to the fact that the piston is pushed into the cylinder, the pressure increases to such an extent that the work is kept constant. Later, in the XIX century., Other scholars, such as French physicists Jacques Charles and Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac showed that at constant pressure, the ratio of volume to the absolute temperature remains constant. This law can also be directly deduced from the kinetic theory. These two laws can be combined into one equation, which is valid at not too high density: PV = RT, where P - pressure. V - volume, T - absolute temperature, absolute zero, ie, -273