Date of Birth: 08/03/1914
Place of birth: Minsk
Zel`dovich, Yakov Borisovich (1914-1987), Soviet physicist, physical chemist and astrophysicist. Born on March 8, 1914 in Minsk. Since the middle of 1914 to August 1941 he lived in St. Petersburg (then Leningrad), until the summer of 1943 in Kazan, in 1943 in Moscow. From autumn 1930 to May 1931 he attended a course and worked as a laboratory of the Institute of Mechanical Processing of Minerals. In May 1931 he was appointed assistant in the Institute of Chemical Physics, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (ICP), which was linked to the end of life. Starting work at the ICP without higher education, to educate ourselves with the assistance and under the guidance of staff of the Institute. From 1932 to 1934 he studied at the correspondence department of Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Leningrad State University, who did not finish; later attended lectures of Physics and Mechanics Department Polytechnic Institute. In 1934 he was admitted to the graduate Institute of Chemical Physics, in 1936 he defended his thesis, and in 1939 - a doctoral thesis. Since 1938 head of laboratory at the ICP. At the end of August 1941 the Institute was evacuated to Kazan. In 1943, together with the laboratory was transferred to Moscow. From 1946 to 1948 he headed the theoretical division of the ICP and at the same time was a professor at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.
From February 1948 to October 1965 he was engaged in defense topics, working on the development of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, and therefore was awarded the Lenin Prize and three times - the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, the USSR. From 1965 to January 1983 he headed the department at the Institute of Applied Mathematics, USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1965 Professor of the Physics Department of Moscow State University, Head of Relativistic Astrophysics Department of the State Astronomical Institute. Sternberg (SAI). Since 1983 the head of department of the Institute of Physical Problems, USSR Academy of Sciences, Consultant Directorate of the Institute of Space Research of the USSR. Since 1977 the head of the Scientific Council on Combustion USSR. In 1946 he was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1958 an academician. He was awarded a gold medal. Kurchatov for predicting the properties of ultracold neutrons and their detection and investigation (1977).
Theoretical astrophysics and cosmology involved from the beginning of the 1960s. He became one of the founders of the relativistic astrophysics - a new field of science in which general relativity applied to astrophysical objects. He developed the theory of the structure of supermassive stars and the theory of compact stellar systems; these theories can be used to describe the processes in the nuclei of galaxies and quasars. For the first time described a complete qualitative picture of the last stages in the evolution of ordinary stars of different masses, examined the conditions under which the star should either turn into a neutron star or experience the gravitational collapse and become a black hole. To study in detail the properties of black holes and the processes taking place in their neighborhoods. He pointed to the possibility of detecting these objects as X-ray sources in close binary systems. In 1962 he showed that not only the massive star, but also a small mass can collapse at a sufficiently high density; in 1970 he concluded that a rotating black hole is able to spontaneously emit electromagnetic waves. These results Zeldovich prepared S.U.Hokingom discovery of the quantum evaporation of black holes.
The Zeldovich`s work on cosmology principal place of dealing with problems of formation of large-scale structure of the universe. Scientists have studied the initial stage of expansion of the universe. Together with the staff developed a theory of interaction between the hot plasma and radiation expanding universe, created the theory of perturbation growth in the "hot" universe in the cosmological expansion, considered some of the problems associated with the emergence of galaxies due to gravitational instability of these disturbances; showed that the resulting formation of a high density, which are probably protocluster galaxies are flat. Several predicted by Zel`dovich effects were experimentally confirmed. In recent years, it was discovered huge empty areas in the universe, surrounded by condensations of galaxies, and found to decrease the brightness temperature of the background radio emission in the direction of a cluster of hot intergalactic gas, galaxies (Zeldovich effect - Sunyaev).
Zeldovich also worked on the problem of the origin of magnetic fields of stars and galaxies in the "dynamo theory". In his later years he developed a "complete" cosmological theory, which would include the birth of the universe. I created relativistic theoretical astrophysics school.
Member of more than ten foreign academies and scientific societies, the first President of the Commission "cosmology" of the International Astronomical Union (1970-1973). Three times Hero of Socialist Labor, Lenin Prize winner and four USSR State Prizes, awarded the medal. K.Bryus Astronomical Society of the Pacific (1983), Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1984).