Date of Birth: 12/27/1812
Place of birth: St. Petersburg
Yakov Karlovich Grot (. 15 (27) .12.1812, Petersburg - 24.5 (5.6) in 1893, ibid) He studied in the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum; in 1832 he graduated from the first course and joined the Office of the Committee of Ministers, comprising the direct control of the Baron MA Korf. When was the last, in 1835, he was appointed Secretary of State, he translated the Grotto in his office.
In 1837, Grotto, a lot of writing is still in high school, he graduated from the translation of Byron`s "Mazeppa" and placed it in the "Contemporary"; There he began to publish articles on the history and literature of the Scandinavian north, which, thanks to the knowledge of the Swedish language, it has been known to perfection.
Translated poetry poem Tegner "Fritiof" provided with explanations of antiquities and mythology of the Scandinavian peoples, still in manuscript attracted the attention of Zhukovsky, who presented the interpreter, State Secretary of the Grand Duke of Finland, Rebinder.
In 1840, Groth was appointed professor at the newly established University of Helsingfors Department of Russian Language and Literature, and the lecture was read in Swedish; he was instructed to also follow the teaching of the Russian language in schools in Finland.
In Finland, the Grotto has published (in Swedish), a number of books for the Finnish youth: "Textbook of the Russian Language" (2nd ed, 1849.); "A book for reading"; "The history of Russia before Peter the Great" (2nd ed, 1850 - 51.), Etc. In a number of articles:. "Familiarity with Runeberg" ( "Contemporary", 1839), "Poetry and mythology of the Scandinavians" ( "Fatherland Notes" , 1839), "On the nature of Finland" ( "Contemporary", 1840), "Helsinki" (1840, ibid), "the Finns and their folk poetry" (ibid), Grotto acquaint Russian society with the literature, history and nature Sweden and Finland.
In 1846 and 1847 under the supervision of the Grotto`s published a detailed Swedish-Russian Dictionary; while he, accompanied by well-known collector of Finnish epic Lenrota, traveled from Lake Ladoga to the Tornio River, which is described in the book: "Moving in Finland" (1847).
In 1847, Groth visited Sweden and Uppsala University and to establish relations with the local scientists and writers. Groth became acquainted with the famous orientalist Kosovich, under whose leadership was engaged in Greek and Sanskrit languages.
In the early 50s there were articles Grotto "Some features of the system of the Russian language sounds", "Regional Great Russian word, akin to the Scandinavian", "Regional Great Russian word of Finnish origin", "Notes on the experience of the regional Great Dictionary" and many others articles included then in an extensive treatise: "Philological rozyskaniya Materials for vocabulary, grammar and history of the Russian language.".
In 1852, Alexander Lyceum Grotto suggested the Department of Literature, which he served 10 years; at the same time he was appointed to teach the Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich and his brother, the future Emperor Alexander III, Russian and German, history and geography.
After three years, Groth was elected an associate of the Academy of Sciences in the department of Russian language and literature, which was held from 1858 ordinary academician, since 1884 - chairman. Since 1889 Grotto was vice president of the Academy of Sciences.
Since the 60s the Grotto name is closely connected with the study of a number of writers and figures of the past and the present century.
Among the numerous and valuable works of the Grotto always on the history of Russian literature and language of the most prominent place in a monumental edition of the works of Derzhavin and "Russian spelling".
In 1891, under the direction of Grot started publishing academic "Dictionary of Russian language" (participated in three editions - the letters A to D).