Date of Birth: 12/27/1654
Place of birth: Basel
Jakob Bernoulli (27.12.1654, Basel, - 08/16/1705, ibid), (1654-1705), brother of Johann Bernoulli; professor of mathematics at the University of Basel (1687).
According to the custom of young men of the time after graduation, he went traveling, served as a tutor in Genoa, and from 1683 he began lecturing on experimental physics at Basel, where he later became a professor of mathematics.
His lectures were listened brother Johann, his nephew Nicholas, the future member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, mathematician and engineer Ya.German, father of the future great mathematician Paul Eyler.Kak`s attention Jakob Bernoulli drew GW Leibniz article in the journal "Proceedings of the scientists` for 1684 a new differential calculus. Jacob turned to the author of the letter, wanting to find out strange places in the article, but the German scientist got it a few years. During this time, the brothers Jakob and Johann themselves understand the intricacies of the new calculus.
Then Johann Leibniz said that posed the problem of brachistochrone (steepest descent curve): "For what path should move in a vertical plane under the action of gravity point of the material, so that the path from point A to point B in the shortest possible time to go?"
He advised Johann publish it to the wittiest of mathematics for the year could give his decision. Johann did. The solution offered three: Jacob Bernoulli, the French mathematician Marquis l`Hopital and who wished to remain anonymous, published in the British journal answer anonymously.
However, the best option turned out to be Jacob. Johann Bernoulli formulated the problem of the curve representing the shortest distance between two points on a given surface - geodesic.
Jacob Bernoulli belong to significant advances in the theory of series, differential calculus and number theory, where his name is given to the number of some specific properties.
But the main merit of the scientist that he formulated and proved a special case of the most important theorems of probability theory - the law of large numbers. It was published after the death of Jacob Bernoulli in his book "The Art of assumptions" (1713).
After 200 years the part of the book that belonged to the law of large numbers, has been translated into Russian and published in Ya.V.Uspenskim Petersburg edited by Academician AA Markov.