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Xenophon

Picture of Xenophon

Place of birth: 430 BC. e.

Nationality: Greece

Background

Born Xenophon officially unknown; Most historians, however, agree that he was born in about 431-m BC, in the vicinity of Athens (Athens). His family belonged to the higher strata of Athenian society that Xenophon has given access to a range of privileges, usually laid one only aristocrats. In his youth, Xenophon participated in the military campaign undertaken by Cyrus the Younger (Cyrus the Younger) against his brother Artaxerxes II (Artaxerxes II). Even before joining the ranks of the army Xenophon asked for advice from Socrates - whether it is at all to communicate with Cyrus. Socrates, Xenophon sent to the Delphic oracle; Oracle, however, Xenophon - much to the displeasure of his mentor - asked a completely different - `what god to pray and sacrifice, so the best way to finish the job and go home in safety and with good baryshom`.

Greeks did not quite have long suspected that they would have to deal with such a large army - an army of mercenaries Cyrus actually used blindly. Uncover fraud in Tarsus (Tarsus); Mercenaries were thinking about how to throw such a dishonest employer, but Spartan general Clearchus (Clearchus) was able to convince them otherwise.

At the Battle of Cunaxa (Battle of Cunaxa) troops were defeated by Cyrus, and Cyrus himself was killed; shortly thereafter Clearchus - along with four other generals and a number of officers - was treacherously captured and executed in the peace talks. Mercenaries were left without command and were forced to choose new leaders; one of them and began to Xenophon. With the guidance of Xenophon managed just otlichno.Pozzhe Persian campaign and return home Xenophon described in his book `Anabasis` (` Anabasis`; literal translation - `Ekspeditsiya`). It is known that in the future, by Alexander of Macedon (Alexander the Great) used this work as a guide during the invasion of Persia (Persia).

One only of the Persian campaign of military adventures Xenophon is not limited; while he worked for the Spartans. There is reason to believe that that is what Xenophon and expelled from Athens; however, there were many reasons - Xenophon supported is not particularly popular among the Athenians Socrates, and the work of the Persians, too, played not in his favor.

New home found a mercenary in all of the same Sparta - gave him an estate in Scylla (Scillus), near Olympia (Olympia). It is in this estate Xenophon, by the way, and completed `Anabasis`.

Where exactly Xenophon died, is unknown. His son, Grill (Gryllus), at the Battle of Mantinea (Battle of Mantinea) fought on the side of Athens, so that the expulsion of the historian seems to have yet returned. Some data say that Xenophon died in Athens, others say about Corinth (Corinth). It is also unknown when Xenophon died; exactly one can only say that he experienced his boss and patron Agesilaus II (Agesilaus II).

Throughout his life Xenophon has repeatedly expressed love for Athens; did not suit him in his native land only political system - according to the indirect data, Xenophon was an oligarch. However, quite actively maintained Xenophon and Sparta - it so happened that there he had to spend a considerable part of his life.