Date of Birth: 02/11/1865
Place of birth: Morrow
Citizenship: United States
Three Republican President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover administration and find some common features, which are derived from the conditions of their policies and of their political concepts. After a fracture as a result of World War II and the American involvement there since the twenties in the US continued intensively social, technological and economic change, the transition to mass production of goods (vehicles, radios, household appliances) became the defining moment of time. The contradictions between the traditional rural America and expanding industrial conurbations are expressed in different cultural and moral concepts of values. In 1920, out of 106 million Americans for the first time 48.6 percent of the population, ie. E., Less than half lived in rural areas in .malenkih settlements with a population of less than 250U residents. Between 1922 and 1929 the country experienced an unusually strong industrial growth. Behind him with the "Great Depression" was followed by a prolonged economic crisis such as an unusual character. Political elections of the President and Congress of those years showed Republican superiority. The Democratic Party is in crisis, the potential of the pre-war time reform has been consumed. Three presidents were in their economic and social policies mostly conservative-republican course. They stopped state regulation of the economy a la Wilson and the newly established cooperative relations with the business world. We acted for saving policy for higher fees and immigration restrictions for significant tax cuts, especially at higher incomes. Their conservative nationalism "America First" was manifested in the withdrawal from the League of Nations, and even the International Court of Justice. At the same time, they have contributed, until it was possible up to 1929, the economic expansion of the United States and showed their interest in the agreements but disarmament and the prohibition of war. Differences in their presidency were partly due to external circumstances, in part resulted from the particular political experience and perception of a more or less marked ability to state the activity of these three presidents. Harding rules, mainly in the period of transition from war to peace and post-war period and had to deal with the legacy of the Wilson era. He was sredneodarennym provincial politician who wanted to return to a normal American life, but whose reputation was strangled over the banks of a scandal involving corruption. Coolidge continued the return to normality, he was a symbolic figure in the economic recovery of the twenties. Hoover, the most remarkable innovator and largest of the three, was a modern conservative with roots in the "progressive movement", which had the misfortune to go down in history as the president of the crisis. Even if he could not find a way out of the "Great Depression", it still deserves the most attention, and not only in foreign policy.
Warren Gamaliel Harding, the future 29th US president, was born on November 2, 1865 on a farm vBluming Grove, Ohio. His father was a farmer and a homeopath. After studying at the school and college Harding worked as a temporary teacher, and later became the publisher and co-owner of "Marion Star", a popular local daily newspaper. Active in the affairs of Harding, who in 1891 married a divorced daughter Florence King, a banker, was athletic, eloquent man handsome, retained throughout his life a passion for fine drinks, poker, golf and women. Politically, he joined the Republican Party. Local communication and eloquence led to the end of the century with his political career as a member of the Ohio Senate, or the vice-governor of the state. In 1914 he was elected to the federal Senate. There Harding devoted himself to the interests of "big business", advocating the increase of duties and expansion of the merchant fleet and declaring for prohibition and women`s suffrage, but against US entry into the League of Nations. Nomination of candidates for the presidency from the Republicans to the polls in 1920, he was obliged ends with a draw between the two main contenders for the Republican House By Leonard and Frank O. Loudenom. Harding and his patriotic provincial horizon consistent with the widespread way of thinking then, and had the confidence of the business world, which is expected from the district to restore it normal peace-time economy. Correspondingly, he led the election campaign in the discussions with the liberal policies of Wilson, he played a conservative, nationalist and against any radicalism. Republican election platform called for tax cuts, increase taxes, immigration restrictions, appealed against the strikes, "that would be waged against the government", performed, however, equal pay for women`s work. In 1920, women across the country have received the right to vote.
November 2, 1920 Harding won the election with a rare uniqueness. He achieved a majority in the 37 states, his opponent Democrat James M. Cox - only in the 11 states of the South. Disappointment outcome of World War II and the Wilson policies, nationalist, not wishing to reform the post-war anti-communist sentiment was also reflected in the election results.
In his inaugural address as president March 4, 1921 in Washington, Harding promised the country "reconstruction, reinsertion, restoration." In the new cabinet gathered a group of well-known politicians, the purpose of which is partially caused bewilderment of the old conservative Republican Guard. It included the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Charles E. Hughes, formerly a supporter of the League of Nations, Commerce Secretary Hoover, capable organizer with a reputation as a philanthropist, and the Minister of Agriculture Wallace, a well-known expert in agriculture. More to taste conservative Republicans was finance minister Mellon, the head of the group of the aluminum industry. Finally, Harding gave government posts many of his old political friends from Ohio ( "Ohio-Gang"). These included the new Minister of Justice Doherty, manager of Harding in the election campaign in Ohio, and the Minister of the Interior Fall, speculator and land mines. Both embody the dark side of the merger of politics and business in the era of the Harding method, especially conspicuous.
The new president and his wife, Florence, was opened to the White House in Washington society, which is the last phase of the Wilson administration had little hospitable. The new first lady said that she and the president "just ordinary people." Harding regularly took his friends in the White House on the long parties of poker in which, in spite of the prohibition, there was no shortage of whiskey. He maintained good relations with the press and newly introduced regular press conference. Regardless of its various addictions in their spare time and inclination to love affair, Harding was an industrious worker. For one of his first measures include the establishment of a budget office in charge of the economical use of budgetary funds. Economic regulation Wilson was eliminated wherever possible. Tax laws have reduced the top tax rates, customs laws have raised tariffs on agricultural and industrial products. The first general immigration restriction has fixed national quotas in 1921 and limited annual immigration of 355,825 persons. This was a concession to nationalist and hostile to foreigners position in American politics and the public.
Harding government has provided more than $ 2 billion for farm credit and supported by the law, agricultural cooperative sales. Also it is the first time to promote the construction of federal highways. The President pardoned those sentenced to imprisonment of opponents of the war, such as the Socialist Debs, and publicly reminded of the country south of the civil rights for black Americans. He was unable to push through Congress a law against lynching and the creation of the Ministry of public charity, as in 1922, increased general problems in relations with Congress.
Contradictory evolved Government relations with the unions. Harding and Hoover made the eight-hour working day in the steel industry, but violent action against the Minister of Justice Doherty strike of railway workers led in September 1922 to the alienation of many trade unions from the policy of the government. In the November 1922 mid-term elections in Congress the Republicans brought a clear defeat.
In foreign policy, Harding chose a mixture of nationalism, pragmatism and conservative world politics, a combination of promoting foreign economic relations, removal of the League of Nations and the agreements with the other powers of the stabilization of the international situation. The special attention is demanded to make peace with the former military adversaries, the regulation of the issue of war debts and the situation in the Far East with problematic relations with Japan. In August 1921 he signed a peace treaty with Germany, in which the US secured the rights from the Treaty of Versailles, without assuming its obligations.
The most important foreign policy event was open to noyabre1921 Harding in Washington Nine-Power Conference, which was to contribute to calming the situation in the Far East and the restriction of arms in the Navy. The agreement of four US states, England, France and Japan mutually guarantee each other of their possessions in the Pacific. The agreement of nine powers of China and China Power confirmed, though not unconditionally, sovereignty and territorial integrity of China. The contract five powers .fevrale 1922 US, England :, Japan, France and Italy temporarily limited the arms race on the sea.
In the first months of 1923 to penetrate the public information on major illegal activities among employees Harding administration. The president himself is not directly involved in the scandalous cases of corruption, was also responsible, as the main accused came from the circle of his personal friends in Ohio and also because it is, for its part, did not contribute to the relentless disclosure of the scandal, as he was advised by Hoover. This is not the enemy, but his friends do not let him sleep at night, she complained increasingly haggard and depressed-looking president. Embezzlement, passive bribery, purchasing privileges were common among government employees. The chiefs of departments, even ministers were involved in it. The greatest sensation caused a scandal "Teapot-Dome", the transfer of government oil fields Fall Minister of the Interior for the high oil bribe two businessmen. Later Fall was for this sentenced to prison. He was the first member of the cabinet in US history, which ended up in jail. The Minister of Justice Doherty escaped a similar fate only for lack of evidence. Both oil entrepreneur did not even brought to trial.
To reassure the public and to strengthen its position in the summer of 1923, Harding has taken political propaganda trip to Alaska and west of the country. There he died on August 2, 1923 in San Francisco at the age of just 57 years, presumably due to apoplexy.
Warren G. Harding takes a "loser" is constantly at the polls last place among US historians on the hierarchy of presidents. This is the result of his mediocre political format, its moral laxity, and above all the consequences of a unique Harding scandal. No matter how justified such a negative verdict, the fact remains that Harding contributed to the restoration of normal political conditional framework for a transitional period after the war. In proportion to the duration of his reign, and the possibilities of its legislative achievements are considerable. Results. conference in Washington, also belong to the positive legacy of this president. However, when after the death of Harding became known for the scale of corruption and the courts were forced to repeatedly bother, it quickly blocked the positive results of his rule, and since then his name is associated with one of the largest and most serious scandals in American history the presidency involving corruption.