William Hyde Wollaston
Date of Birth: 08/06/1766
Place of birth: East Durham
Citizenship: United Kingdom
Wollaston was born on August 6, 1766 in East Dereham, Norfolk (East Dereham, Norfolk, England), in the east of England. He was the son of the priest-astronomer Francis Wollaston (Francis Wollaston, 1737-1815) and his wife Mary Farquhar (Mary Farquier). William was in college and Gonneville Keyes at the University of Cambridge (Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge), one of the most traditional of Cambridge colleges, in 1793 and received in the same Cambridge doctorate in medicine. Since 1787 to 1828 he was a member of the College Association Keyes. While studying Wollaston particularly interested in chemistry, crystallography, metallurgy and physics. It is named after the mineral wollastonite and one of the craters on the moon. In 1800-m Wollaston left medicine and concentrated on their own interests instead of from the University of the profession.
Wollaston became rich when he opened the first physico-chemical method for processing platinum ore on an industrial scale, and in the process of testing the device discovered in 1803 by members of palladium (Pd on the periodic table of elements) and in 1804 - rhodium (Rh). In 1802, Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (Anders Gustav Ekeberg) discovered tantalum, but Wollaston said that it is identical to niobium (then known as columbite). Under the influence of the existence of Wollaston columbite temporarily denied. Much later, in 1846, Heinrich Rose (Heinrich Rose) showed that niobium and tantalum - in fact, quite different elements and renamed Colombia in niobium. However, this name is still used in the USA (USA).
Wollaston also conducted important work in the field of electricity. In 1801 he made the experiment, indicating that the electricity generated by friction, identical to the electricity produced by a voltaic pile. In recent years, the life of a scientist conducting experiments with electricity, which may have paved the way for the modern motor. The controversy began when Michael Faraday (Michael Faraday) constructed the first working motor and hurried to publish his results without acknowledging the impact of earlier works Wollaston. Wollaston, however, was not mad at Faraday. In addition, the battery Wollaston invented which allow the plate to remove zinc from an acid and zinc is not dissolved as fast as if it were in the battery all the time.
He was also interested in optics and invented in 1807-m optical instrument called a camera lucida, refractometer in 1802-m, goniometer in 1809 and Wollaston prism. In 1812, he also developed the first lens specifically for the camera. This lens has helped significantly improve the image projected by a camera obscura, eliminating distortion.
In 1805, 1812 and 1828 Wollaston was honored to read the annual lectures in physics at the Royal Society (Royal Society). However, in 1828 he was too ill to speak in public, and dictated a lecture Uorbartonu Henry (Henry Warburton), who read it on November 20. Wollaston died a month later on December 22, 1828, in London (London) and was buried in Chislehurst (Chislehurst).
Despite the fact that the Wollaston left the medical practice, the theory has not ceased to interest him. Thus, an attempt to Wollaston demonstrate the presence of glucose in the blood serum of patients with diabetes ended in failure due to the limited means of detection that existed in his arsenal. In 1811 he published an article, which indicated that sugar should flow through the lymph channels from the stomach directly into the kidney, without entering into the bloodstream.
Wollaston took part in the work of the Royal Commission, which in 1819 opposed the adoption of the metric system in Britain, and has introduced such a measure as an imperial gallon.