Date of Birth: 05/24/1544
Place of Birth: Colchester (Essex)
Citizenship: United Kingdom
Born May 24, 1544 in Colchester (Essex). He studied medicine at Cambridge, practiced medicine in London, where he became president of the Royal College of Medicine, was a court physician to Elizabeth I and James I.
In 1600 he published a treatise on the magnet, magnetic bodies and a large magnet - the Earth (De magnete, magneticisque corporibus, et magno magnete tellure), which described the results of his 18-year research of magnetic and electric phenomena and put forward the first theory of electricity and magnetism. Gilbert, in particular, found that every magnet has two poles, with like poles repel while unlike charges attract; I found that under the influence of iron objects acquire magnetic properties of the magnet (induction); It showed an increase in magnet strength careful surface treatment. By studying the magnetic properties of magnetized iron ball, showed that he is acting on the compass as well as the Earth, and came to the conclusion chtoposlednyaya is a giant magnet. I assume that the Earth`s magnetic poles coincide with the geographical.
Thanks to Gilbert science of electricity has been enriched with new discoveries, precise observations, instruments. With the help of his "versora" (first electroscope) Gilbert showed that the ability to attract and retain small objects is not only polished amber, and diamond, sapphire, crystal, glass and other materials, which he called "electric" (from the Greek. "Amber" - electron), first introduced the term in science. Gilbert electricity leakage phenomenon discovered in a humid atmosphere, its destruction in flame shielding effect of electrical charges on the paper, cloth or metal, the insulating properties of certain materials.
First in England Gilbert expressed support for the Copernican heliocentric teachings and output of Giordano Bruno that the sun - only one of the many stars in the universe. Gilbert died in London (or Colchester) November 30, 1603.