Date of Birth: 06/17/1832
Place of birth: London
Citizenship: United Kingdom
Who discovered thallium and allocated helium?
Crookes was born in London; He was the eldest of 16 children of a local tailor. In the period from 1850 to 1854-th Crookes worked as an assistant at the college. Over time, he engaged in the development of their own areas; he is not interested in organic chemistry, where once succeeded his mentor, August Wilhelm von Hofmann (August Wilhelm von Hofmann), but fundamentally new selenium alloys.
In 1851 Crookes published his first paper on this topic.
In 1854 th he won a seat in the Observatory Radcliffe (Radcliffe Observatory), Oxford (Oxford), in 1855 - a post of lecturer in a British college.
In 1856-m Crooks married Ellen Humphrey (Ellen Humphrey); married that he had three sons and a daughter. After the wedding, Crooks settled in London, where he continued to develop his own projects.
In 1859-m William Crookes founded scientific journal `Chemical News`; Scientists have long been published in this journal, and acted as one of its main editors.
In 1861 Crookes discovered a new, previously unknown element, which gave the spectrogram bright green; It named the new element was `talliy`. With experiments Crookes all luck; especially in its investigations proved useful method of spectral analysis, proposed by Bunsen (Bunsen) and Kirchhoff (Kirchhoff). This method has helped open Crookes thallium; later he has used this technique in experiments.
Opening thallium strengthened the already quite strong reputation of William Crookes in the scientific community; in 1863 the scientist was admitted to the Royal Society (Royal Society). Rest on our laurels, however, Crookes did not - his experiments continued. During the study of cathode rays William created the so-called `Kruksa` tube. During izucheniyaprovodimosti electricity in rarefied gases Uiyalm found that as the pressure reducing negative electrode (cathode) emits rays. Having been engaged in the study of this phenomenon, Crookes in fact became one of the founders of the work with vacuum tubes. In the future, it is Crookes - again, one of the first - began to study the plasma; in 1879-m was he who announced the plasma fourth state of matter.
Continued chemical experiments Crookes and beyond; they often led to results truly incredible - so, in 1895, William Crookes was able to identify for the first time under laboratory conditions helium. The merits of the scientist did not go unnoticed - he regularly received the highest scientific and public awards. In 1897 for his scientific accomplishments, William Crooks was honored with a knighthood.
In 1903 Crookes began to study the phenomenon, otkryvshegosyamirovoy science relatively recently - radioactivity. During their experiments William Crookes was able to separate the uranium from the so-called `uranium-Iks` (later turned protactinium). In front of a selected item Crookes began to disintegrate - and simultaneously reproduced in the newly purified uranium. Parallel conduct experiments Crookes helped open the so-called `p-chastitsy` - stand out from the radioactive substances and the light output in a collision with zinc sulfide. This observation helped to open one of the key methods of studying radioactive elements known to modern science.
In 1909 William Crookes published a small work of diamonds. A year later he was awarded the next highest award - Order of Merit.
William Crookes died April 4, 1919-th, two years his wife survived. Buried scientist at London cemetery.