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William Anderson

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Nuclear-powered ships near the North PoleAfter World War II, William Anderson resigned as commander of one of the existing submarines, fully devoting himself to teaching at the New London School of Diving. The bosses valued him, considering excellent specialist in the field of tactical submarines.

On Sunday, June 8, 1958. nuclear submarine " Nautilus " was standing at the pier in Seattle, ready to cast off at any moment. " Nautilus " I was not one of the newest at the time of American nuclear submarines like " Skate " or " Skipjack ". The boat already had enough " running " - 115 thousand miles ,traveled submerged with a single recharge of nuclear fuel. After a couple of hours " Nautilus " was supposed to go camping, but the final destination was still secret even for the submarine commander Captain 2nd Rank William Anderson. The safe Anderson lay two packages ,addressed to him the supreme command. Which of them will be opened, it was to determine the call from the Pentagon. Finally, at the other end Anderson heard the familiar voice of the chief, Admiral konrt Despita. The voice ordered to begin the operation " Sunshine. " Anderson knewthat behind this nothing telling name hides the first passage through the pack ice of the North Pole. ..

After World War II, William Anderson resigned as commander of one of the existing submarines, fully devoting himself to teaching at the New London School of Diving. The bosses valued himConsidering excellent specialist in the field of tactical submarines. Once workdays Anderson interrupted by a phone call Rear Admiral Watkins. The commander of submarine forces in the Atlantic, ordered his subordinate to urgently come to Washington for talks with Admiral Rickover. Going to the capital ,Anderson did not dogatyvalsya about the purpose of his visit to the Rickover. Last same going in a private conversation proekzamenovat another contender for the post of commander of the nuclear submarine. The US Navy these boats were only four or five, and each of them, Admiral conviction should get in good hands. A few months later, in July 1956. William Anderson, all of a sudden moved from New London to Washington, where he was to work in the department of nuclear reactors main ship management. Anderson enthusiastically mastered all supposed to know the commander of a nuclear submarine. Some weeks he spent in Arco, studying the ground reactor prototype submarine ,then he visited the factory of the company " Westinghouse ", engaged in energy- nuclear submarines, and finally visited the shipyard ` Electric Boat Division, "with which stocks went new submarines.

Anderson soon found out that he will command the submarine " Nautilus ", taking it from the hands of an experienced diver Eugene Wilkinson. About his future commander of the ship heard only favorable ratings set a record speed of underwater course (1381 miles in 90 hours).

In late 1956. Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral Burke received a letter from Senator Jackson. Senators were interested in the possibility of acts of nuclear submarines under the Arctic pack ice. This letter was the first sign ,which forced the command of the US Navy to think seriously about the organization of the campaign to the North Pole. However, part of the American admirals thought this reckless venture and was categorically opposed. Despite this, the commander of submarine forces of the Atlantic Fleet saw a polar hike a foregone conclusion.

In June, 1957. William Anderson came on board their submarine. He, the new commander of the ship, was already known to the solution of staff - first to the North Pole should go is " Nautilus ". After this campaign, ordered the boat to come to England to participate under the name " Straykbek " NATO exercises in the sea, the beginning of which was scheduled for 20 September. According to the general plan of the maneuvers, the boat could be in the area of pack ice until the end of August, when the weather in the Arctic submariners threatened to present the most unexpected surprises.

Knowing this, Anderson began to prepare for the upcoming campaign with tripled zeal. On the " Nautilus " was installed special equipment ,It allows you to determine the state of the ice, and a new compass MK- 19, which, in contrast to conventional magnetic compasses, operated at high latitudes. Before the campaign got hold of Anderson`s most recent maps and sailing with the depths of the Arctic, and even made a flight, the route of which coincides with the planned route " Nautilus ".

August 19, 1957. " Nautilus " headed for the area between Greenland and Spitsbergen. The first test output submarine under the ice pack was unsuccessful. When eholedomer recorded nklevuyu thickness of the ice, the boat tried to emerge. Instead of the expected polynya " Nautilus " met a drifting ice floe. From collision with her boat heavily damaged only corrected the periscope and the commander of " Nautilus " has decided to go back to the edge of the packs.

Bent periscope repaired in field conditions. Anderson watched quite skeptical of the factas the welders working on stainless steel (even in ideal factory conditions such welding required a lot of experience) . However, the crack formed in the periscope was embedded, and the unit started to operate again.

It does not bring the result and the second attempt to reach the pole. A couple of hours after the " Nautilus " crossed the 86 th parallel ,Both have failed gyrocompass. Anderson decided not to tempt fate and gave the order to turn - at high latitudes even meager deviation from the right course would be fatal and bring the ship to the ice- clogged lines of another bank. " Nautilus " turned back just 180 miles from the point of intersection of the meridians. This failure of his captain rank 2 William Anderson more than compensated for in England, on the teaching of " Straykbek ". During the joint exercises " Nautilus " acted very efficiently and " sunk " many ships. Opportunities nuclear submarine made an enormous impression on the British naval officers.

In late October 1957. Anderson spoke at the White House with a small report, which devoted a recent campaign under the Arctic ice. The report was listened to with some indifference, and William was disappointed. The stronger the desire to become commander of the " Nautilus " to go to the pole again.

Pondering this journey, Anderson has prepared a letter to the White House ,which convincingly proved that the crossing of the pole will be a reality in the next year. From the presidential administration have made it clear that the " Nautilus " commander can rely on the support. New idea became interested and the Pentagon. Shortly thereafter, Admiral Burke reported on the upcoming campaign the president himself ,who reacted to the plans of the Anderson enthusiastically.

The operation was conducted in an atmosphere of secrecy - a new command feared failure. The details of the campaign only knew a handful of people in the government. To hide the true reason behind the " Nautilus " optional navigation equipment ,it was announced on the participation of the ship in the joint training maneuvers with the boat " Skate " and " Hafbik ". In January, 1958. Anderson received an urgent call from the head of the combat use of submarine forces Rear Admiral Despita. From a conversation with Rear Admiral Commander " Nautilus " realized that this time the task will be more difficult -go through the pole from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic.

The first part of the way under the pack ice near Greenland - Svalbard was familiar with Anderson, and did not cause any concern.But in the shallow Chukchi Sea and the Bering Strait boat could easily get lost among the deep- seated ice (thickness of the ice cover in this part of the ocean was much greater than at the North Pole) . Yet Anderson has not allowed himself for a moment to doubt the success of the campaign.

One can not but pay tribute to the American system of deception and concealment.Hike boat to the pole so well wedged between successive maneuvers that know about it, not being privy to the plan of operation, it was almost impossible. According to the order of Admiral Burke, in late spring 1958. " Nautilus " was supposed to go to the West Coast ,where it was proposed to hold joint exercises of nuclear submarines and anti-submarine ships of the US Navy. On the way from New London to Seattle Anderson commander ordered to go to a number of ports, one of which was Panama. Going way back from Seattle charted at the beginning of June. Before Panama " Nautilus " was to go underwater. Nothing interesting to the casual observer, which, of course, had no idea how the final transition " Nautilus " is different from the traditional route Seattle - Panama. By early August, the underwater ship was definitely return to New London ,that together with the nuclear submarine " Skate " and a diesel submarine " Habfik " go to the Greenland area for the next maneuver.

June 9, 1958. " Nautilus " went into its second polar swimming. When Seattle left far behind, Anderson ordered the submarine to paint a room on the fence cutting to remain incognito. On the fourth day of the journey, " Nautilus " close to the Aleutian Islands. Knowing that more will have to go through the shallow water, the captain ordered the ascent. " Nautilus " long maneuvered in the area - was looking for a convenient gap in the chain of islands to get to the north. Finally, the navigator Jenkins found quite deep passage between the islands. Having overcome the first obstacle, submarine entered the Bering Sea.

Now the " Nautilus " was to slip through narrow and covered with ice Bering Strait. The path to the west of the island of St. Lawrence was completely closed coastal pack ice. Draft some icebergs exceed ten meters. They could easily crush the " Nautilus "pressing his submarine to the bottom. Despite the fact that a significant part of the road has been passed, Anderson gave the order to follow the reverse course.

The commander of the " Nautilus " do not despair - maybe eastern passage through the strait will be more friendly to the rare guests. The boat came from the Siberian ice and headed south of the St. Lawrence Islands,intending to go into deep water near Alaska. The next few days the campaign took place without incident, except for frequent meetings with enormous gnarled logs that are carried into the sea Yukon River. To avoid collision with them the boat was forced to go to great depths. But now the " Nautilus " is not threatened by icebergs. The submarine is easily passed through the strait at periscope depth, and in the morning on June 17 reached the Chukchi Sea.

Optimistic expectations Anderson collapsed like a house of cards. The first wake-up call was the appearance of floes devyatnadtsatimetrovoy thickness, which was right on the submarine. Clashes with her managed to escape ,but warned recorders instruments : towards the boat - even more serious obstacle. Standing close to the bottom, " Nautilus " slipped under a huge ice floe at a distance of one and a half meters away from it. only narrowly escaped death. When the stylus is finally went up, indicating that the boat missed the ice floe ,Anderson realized : "Operation Sunshine " has failed completely. ..

Following the instructions of Burke, Anderson directed his ship in Pearl Harbor. The commander " Nautilus " could do nothing but hope - at the end of the summer ice boundary moved away to deeper areas, and it will be possible to make another attempt to get close to the pole. But who will give her permission after so many failures? Anderson, shivering, thinking about how his radio message about the results of the campaign will be met at the Pentagon. The reaction of higher US military was immediate - Anderson was summoned to Washington for an explanation. The commander of the " Nautilus " keep a stiff upper lip, showing tenacity,which could only be compared with the tenacity of the doomed. His report to the senior officers of the Pentagon is confident that next July, the campaign undoubtedly succeed. Commander " Nautilus " was given another chance.

Anderson immediately started to act.To monitor the ice situation, he sent his mate to Alaska Jenks. For Jenks (of course, with the consent of the supreme leadership) invented the legend, according to which he was an officer in the Pentagon, and was endowed with special powers. Arriving in Alaska, Jenks picked up almost the entire patrol aircraft in the air ,which led daily observations in the area of the future route " Nautilus ". In mid-July, Anderson is still in Pearl Harbor, received welcome news from his navigator : ice conditions became favorable for transpolar transition, the main thing - do not miss the moment. July 22 nuclear submarine with carefully jammed rooms left Pearl Harbor. Going dvadtsatiuzlovym swing, submarine skirted the island of Oahu on Kauai Strait and headed to the Aleutian Islands. Ocean roadblock Anderson intended to pass as quickly as possible to use the reserve time in dangerous shallow seas. " Nautilus " was at full speed, sometimes reducing it when needed to take another radio message from the base. At constant currency kept boat autopilot. On the night of July 27, Anderson brought the ship in the Bering Sea. And just a couple of days, having done 2900 mile trek from Pearl Harbor, " Nautilus " is already cleaving the waters of the Chukchi Sea. I could not believe that a month ago it was scored a massive pack ice.

Suddenly, the boat hit the strip of thick fog, causing it to roll to the Cape Barrow. Now the " Nautilus " was near the shore, over which made frequent flying military aircraft. So the captain gave the order to strengthen surveillance,to a crucial stage not to violate the secrecy of the campaign.

August 1 submarine sank under the pack- ice of the Arctic, sometimes stretching into the water to a depth of twenty meters. Carry out the " Nautilus " beneath them was not easy. Almost all the time, Anderson himself was on watch. Occasionally, a few hours commander succeeds XO Adams - the only personcommander who trusted his post. On the approach to the pole Anderson saw phosphorescent strip in the water column. This phenomenon, usually in the tropics, it seemed bizarre sight in the icy Arctic.

The crew was excited about the upcoming event, which wanted to mention properly.

Some, for example ,We offer the pole around twenty-five small circles. Then the " Nautilus " would be able to enter the Guinness Book of Records as the ship, the first in the history of seafaring has made 25 voyages around the world in a single campaign. Anderson rightly thought of such maneuvers can be no question - too likely to go astray. Commander " Nautilus " worried about completely different issues. To cross the pole as accurately as possible, Anderson did not take his eyes off the pointers elektronavigatsionnyh devices. On August 3, twenty-three hours and fifteen minutes, the goal of the campaign - the geographic North Pole - was achieved.

Hitting in the area of the pole longerthan that required to collect statistical information about the state of ice and seawater, Anderson sent a submarine to the Greenland Sea. " Nautilus " was to arrive in the area of Reykjavik, where she was held a secret meeting. The helicopter, a submarine waiting at the rendezvous point, took on board the submarine is only one person -Commander Anderson. Fifteen minutes later, the helicopter landed in Keflavik near ready for dispatch transport aircraft.

When the wheels touched the plane landing airfield tracks in Washington, Anderson was already waiting car, sent to the White House - the commander of " Nautilus " wished to see the President immediately.After the report on the operation of the Anderson again back on board " Nautilus ", which during this time managed to reach Portland.

Six days " Nautilus " and his commander with honor belonged to NY. In their honor was organized a military parade. ..

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