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Wilhelm Humboldt

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Date of Birth: 06/22/1767

Age: 67

Place of birth: Potsdam

Citizenship: Germany

Background

Wilhelm von Humboldt was born June 22, 1767 Potsdam.

1787-89 Studied in law at the universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and Gottingen. In 1801-10 locust. resident at the papal court; Director of the Department of Education and faiths. His work was marked by the introduction of Pestalozzi`s methods in elementary school, her withdrawal from the jurisdiction of the Church, the restructuring of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Berlin University of the base (now University. In the German Democratic Republic). In 1810-19 in the diplomatic service. As in 1819, one of the two ministers vnutrennh Affairs, made an unsuccessful attempt to draft a constitution Prussia.

Humboldt - one of the most prominent representatives of German classical humanism time of Goethe and Schiller. Like IG Herder, he sees the goal of history in the implementation of "humanity" ideal, consisting in spiritual formation and disclosure of the human personality in all its fullness her abilities, which should merge into a kind of harmonious whole, like a work of art. Free inner self-development of the individual and the nation, which Humboldt also understands as a spiritual creative individuality, and defines the boundaries of the state; Humboldt task it is reduced only to the protection of external borders and internal security law ( "On the limits of state activity", 1792; Russian translation in the appendix to the book:.. R. Haym, Wilhelm von Humboldt ..., M., 1898).

The implementation of the ideal of "humanity" Humboldt, like J. Winckelmann, Goethe and Schiller, seen in antiquity and in modern times - especially in the person of Goethe, whose works, according to Humboldt, implement the highest artistic ideal - the awakening of a holistic peace of mind in the unity of his abilities ( "Oh," Herman and Dorothea "Goethe", 1799): leading ability to create such unity - the creative imagination. This unity is the indispensable condition of all spiritual attainment, including the understanding of the history, since the latter requires penetration of the spiritual essence of the described persons and events ( "The historian`s task", 1821).

Humboldt essentially was the founder of the philosophy of language as an independent discipline. In his paper "On the difference between the structure of human language and its influence on the spiritual development of the human race", prefaced as an introduction to the posthumously published his book "On the Kawi on the island of Java" (1836-39), Humboldt understands the language not as something fixed, but as a continuous process of spiritual creativity as "formative organ of thought", which expresses the individual world view of the people and thereby determining all spiritual man`s relationship to the world. These ideas had a great influence on the subsequent development of linguistics (psychological school of the 19th century -. H. Steinthal and Potebnya, German and American neogumboldtianstvo ethnolinguistics 20, etc...).

Wilhelm von Humboldt died on April 8, 1835 in Tegel near Berlin.

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