Date of Birth: 08/21/1931
Academician Vyacheslav IVANOV: THE FUTURE IS ALREADY
The day after tomorrow this man, one of the founders of our world and mathematical linguistics, holder of many prestigious scientific titles and degrees, - 75. May God bless him and wish fulfillment, and realization of ideas. And health. The rest more than he is endowed with the fullest. The deep, comprehensive intelligence. Encyclopedic knowledge. For example, he knows - or, at least, understands - more than a hundred human language! And no less surprising understanding of the almost all the languages ??in which "talk" modern science and art - often, by the way, not understand each other (such connecting understanding in our troubled times, splitting, decay - and atoms, and the states, and a shower - well worth it). And exacerbation of the conscience of a citizen of the world and his country.
Recently I was lucky enough to listen to his lecture course "Introduction to the modern science of man." This intellectual feast, which was all. The alloy of the newest scientific concepts of different scales in the world. In the space - the quark and "charmed particles" to white dwarfs and black holes of the universe. In the time - from the Big Bang to the not-too unreal world of the Apocalypse.
But the throbbing in these publicly thinking with itself and with the "tribe young, unknown" is also something to bind it all together. The deployment of the fate of man and mankind from the past into the future.
My companion - Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vyacheslav Ivanov.
- Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich! Some say the future is bright and beautiful. Other paint it in black and glowing colors of the Apocalypse. Sheckley, for example, in a recent interview stated: "Unfortunately, we will never be able to make full opposition to evil. Maybe so programmed world, our universe. " In the story of your father "Cloudy sheet", where a fight between good and evil continues in the future (over the unprecedented apple orchards is a battle unprecedented aircrafts terrestrial and extraterrestrial civilizations), dear to me understand not only the equivalence of these prospects, but their dependence on the mind, will, conscience now living man. It is because in the story, where dreams come both versions of the future, the question of the outcome of the fight is still open. Am I correct in my interpretation?
- You know, your question to me is particularly interesting because you ask it here in the house of Peredelkino. During the war took place near the front. Our cottage was burned. Burned huge paternal library - there were only burnt the books of the XVIII century roots of the skin, for some reason, did not succumb to the fire. When we began to restore housing the ashes - and this time around has coincided with the writing "overcast sheet" - then put a tiny birch father.
Father has more than forty years as a no. There is the very future that was true. And in it - a whole grove of tall birch trees in front of our house. So this way, and I connected with time, with the transformation of the emerging future.
And for the father, it was not a random motif. He as a writer and a person very interested in motion in time - from the past to the future. He has engaged in contemporary science, reading a special book. After graduating from elementary school, and only picking up a book as a typographic worker, he then developed an intense self-education. When the end of the Civil War at the invitation of Gorky arrived in Petrograd and learned about the theory of relativity, to understand it, seriously deepened in advanced mathematics. I still have quite unpopular Eddington book about the theory of relativity, one of those that accidentally escaped from all my father`s library, with his notes. There is and the head of the movement in time.
I think you are right to mention the ambiguity of his vision of the future. He foresaw his terrible possibilities. But he looked at him not just pessimistic, it is clear from the nature of his archive. For example, Marshal Blucher shortly before his arrest, his father handed materials for his biography - a lot of documents of the Civil War time. It was assumed that the father would write a book about him. And the father, these materials are not destroyed. Archive Marshal`s shot took a compartment in a closed cabinet. Then, when Blucher rehabilitated, we handed him over to the Lenin Library archive.
No one then did not do. Is that Eisenstein preserved archive of Meyerhold. But the father kept the autograph and "seditious" Klyuyev poem "Pogorelschina". So he obviously thought: all this, like so much else, do not come down on the cruel times of the reader, will be in demand in the future.
The man who sees only the front end of the world, does not do that. To some extent, he believed in the future. But at the same time realized: in the future will remain powerful forces acting to the detriment of humans. Sidedly optimistic never was - this was not found for them.
- Now, 60 years after writing "overcast sheet", you son of his father, how would you have responded to his tormenting question: what awaits us, people in the future?
- As far as my view of the future, I was totally original. Many years ago I heard from Peter Kapitza on global projections of the Rome club. And I`m convinced these forecasts. What we now know about the possible end of the world, hosted by the people themselves, the Club of Rome predicted by scientists for more than a quarter of a century ago, reducing them to four or five ecological, economic, demographic threats that Kapitsa was trying to bring to the consciousness of the then our leaders.
Print article about this he was given. But seriously reacted to his warnings. And because he wanted the Soviet leaders to tailor their actions to the real future of mankind. However, indifference and carelessness met these ideas not only for us. I remember, in Italy, I was surprised to ask, how do you know about the Club of Rome more than we do?
Unfortunately, all of these threats remain in force, even more acute. And carelessness remains. Distributed by, for example, the view that after the US and the USSR military confrontation is removed and the threat of nuclear self-destruction of humanity. When I was involved in parliamentary activities during Gorbachev`s reforms, it seemed to have really possible to eliminate nuclear war from the life of people. Seychaseto less obvious. After Sakharov, if you remember, prophetically believed the main problem is not so much the exchange of nuclear strikes superpowers as nuclear terrorism. Technical feasibility of the use of nuclear weapons by one person, a terrible combination of Chernobyl terrorism, now is real. Thankfully, this is not. But ... In short, the possibility of breakage of our civilization remain.
- But if we have hope for a brighter future?
- There is. It is that humanity vse-taki moves in the direction of the noosphere - the sphere of reason, which gave a profound explanation of Vernadsky. And I believe that intellectuals, in particular the Russian intelligentsia - the conductor into the noosphere. For it determines that likely awaits us in the future, and sooner or later the people agree with it. I am optimistic at this point, because I do not know of situations in history that the final decision has not been associated with this vector.
On the road it can happen all sorts of misfortunes. But eventually the noosphere approximation occurs. Although some people that make a huge contribution to the acceleration of this progress in the future, may be lost. Sugars, for example, it is dead and not dead. When I saw him after his return from Gorky - just I do not know. His alleged "treatment" of hunger there was horrible. This torture.
He - the time the victim, the victim lives in the zone of constant risk. How Men who had been killed. As many others. There are so many people die, that the absolute grounds for optimism, none of us do not. But Russian spiritual development direction vector is still preserved in the moral culture in the language environment, which is still very much needed for the whole world. And should remain in the future.
- Is this what you are saying now, when so much is done for the erosion of moral foundations of Russian society, for the destruction of his linguistic environment ?!
- Yes, I argue. Trends are fighting different, but I believe: in the national culture so deeply rooted that even with broken branches is able to regain its crown.
My belief is reinforced by a startling, relatively recently discovered feature of the noosphere: she would include himself and his future. This is best understood and formulated well-known philosopher of the twentieth century, Karl Popper, which resulted, in particular, in his idea of ??three worlds.
The first - the world of real objects: tables, clocks, books as a printed, tangible things. The second - a world of mental representations: our emotions, thoughts, reasoning, the state of our consciousness. And finally, the third - the world of our culture, to which Popper took as printed ideas, played a symphony, prove theorems and ideas that have not yet been translated into reality: the theorem, which is not proved, the symphony, which is not only not fulfilled, but not yet exist even in notation.
Popper had in mind that it is not embodied in the life of ideas, not yet resolved, but the questions that have to implement, to resolve in the future are included in the scope of the current state of mind.
The noosphere as it includes a spare some future. Our well-known psychologist Vygotsky spoke about the zone of proximal development as applied to the growth of the child. So, too, the noosphere has its zone of proximal development, which can to some extent predict "read", to translate research into predictive models.
- The optimistic variant of the future you associate with intelligence sphere. But in the future to modify the mind itself and its carrier - a person? In connection with the latest achievements of genetics and biotechnology which are not only stories builds sophisticated human imagination! Here, for example, the journalist enters the lab barricaded from the scientific world and sees his alcoholized genokopiyu. Terrifying, "How could you, creating a living being, to kill him." And I hear in response: "Who told you that I created it? It was he who created me! ".
- I know a hilarious storyline. From Lem, I think. A man is suing the firm, which considers it his private property, as all his organs - artificial started this company ...
But seriously, I do not really believe in the genetic transformation of the physical nature of man. We still know too much about the genetics of a person not to do mass outrages along the way. And therefore God forbid us to first better understand and more fully use the fantastic opportunities that have already been laid in the nature of the human body.
Take the brain. Modern information theory for the first time made it possible to quantify its potency. And it turned out: the normal brain of an ordinary person can hold the achievements of all existing and existed until now culture. I`m not exaggerating. Physiologically it is. What follows are a number of practical conclusions.
And above all, one that all modern, all over the world working for centuries system of education is wrong. Because it is obvious: none of the inhabitants of the earth people, including those whom we honor for geniuses, fully implementing their intellectual capabilities. Moreover, the efficiency of the brain during human life just miserable. And the reason for this must be sought in early childhood.
The human brain is born, as it were undone. The huge number of its neurons and connections between them turned on very slowly. It is no accident two years before we, as a rule, is not yet able to speak. And then we remember very little about the first years of his life.
Physiologically, our nervous system, our brains are adapted to ensure that gradually, but very quickly, very soon a lot to digest. So, the meaning of a new educational paradigm: knowing the age when the work included certain areas of the brain, its connection, do not miss the time to give a start to the development of human capabilities, its inclusion in the interaction of physiological and cultural beginnings in itself. If we do not do it in time, then forever remain poluurodami in some respects.
The main thing - we all must learn in time. And in the current educational system, all to digest later than you need, and then begin the complaint: our young people is not so ...