Date of Birth: 03/03/1907
Place of birth: Zhytomyr
Vladimir Veksler was born in Ukraine in the city of Zhitomir, March 3, 1907. His father was killed in the First World War.
In 1921, during the widespread famine and devastation, with great difficulty, with no money, Vladimir Veksler gets into starvation prednepovskuyu Moscow. The teenager is in the house-commune, established in Khamovniki, in an old mansion, abandoned by the owners.
Wexler is different from the interest in physics and electrical engineering practice, he gathered a radio detector, which in those years was extremely difficult thing, a lot of reading in school a good student.
Coming out of the commune, Wexler has retained many of its educated attitudes and habits.
Note that the generation to which belonged to Vladimir I., in an overwhelming majority with complete disregard to the household concerned parties of their lives, but fanatically addicted to scientific, professional and social problems.
Wexler, among others, the Communards graduated from a nine-year high school and together with all the graduates went to work on the production, where he worked as an electrician for more than two years.
His thirst for knowledge, a love of books and rare ingenuity were seen in the late 20s youth received the "Komsomol" in the Institute.
When Vladimir I. finished institute, conducted the next reorganization of higher education and change their names. It so happens that Wexler did in the Plekhanov Institute of National Economy and graduated from the Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Moscow Power Engineering Institute) and qualified as an engineer in the specialty rengenotehnika.
In the same year he entered the laboratory X-ray-Union Electrotechnical Institute in Lefortovo, where Vladimir I. began his work with the construction of measuring instruments and methods of studying the measurement of ionizing radiation, ie, fluxes of charged particles.
In this laboratory, Wexler worked for 6 years, having risen rapidly from laboratory to the head. There has emerged a distinctive "handwriting" Wexler as a talented scientist and experimenter. His disciple, Professor Rabinovich later wrote in his memoirs about Wexler:. "Almost 20 years he collected and constructed various invented them install, never avoiding any work It allowed him to see not only the facade, not only its principles but all that lies behind the final results, the accuracy of measurements of shiny cabinets installations. all his life he studied and retrained. Until the very last years of his life in the evenings, on vacation, he carefully studied and outlined the theoretical work. "
In September 1937, Wexler moved from the All-Union Electrotechnical Institute of Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Lebedev (FIAN). This was an important event in the life of a scientist.
By this time, Vladimir I. has defended his thesis, the theme of which was the use of the device and designed them "proportional amplifiers."
The FIAN Wexler began to study cosmic rays. Unlike Alikhanov and his staff, taken a liking to the scenic Mount Aragats in Armenia, Wexler took part in the expeditions of scientists of Elbrus, and then, later, the Pamirs - the roof of the world. Physicists around the world studied the fluxes of charged high-energy particles, which can not be obtained in terrestrial laboratories. Researchers climbed closer to the mysterious cosmic ray fluxes.
Even cosmic rays have an important place in the arsenal of astrophysicists and high-energy physics experts, nominated by exciting an interesting theory of their origin. In those times to get the particles to such energies to the study it was impossible, and for the physicists was necessary to study their interaction with other particles and fields. Already in the thirties, many atomic scientists thought arises: how nice it would be to obtain particles such high "cosmic" energy in the laboratory using a reliable instrument for the study of subatomic particles, the method of study which was one - the bombardment (as figuratively said before, and rarely speak Now) some other particles. Rutherford discovered the existence of the atomic nucleus by bombarding atoms with powerful missiles - alpha particles. The same method of nuclear reactions were discovered. To turn one into another chemical element, it was required to change the composition of the nucleus. This was achieved by bombarding nuclei with alpha particles, and now - the particles to disperse in powerful accelerators.
After the invasion of Nazi Germany, many physicists immediately joined in the work of military significance. Wexler interrupted the study of cosmic rays and engaged in the design and improvement of electronic equipment for the war effort.
At this time the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences, as well as some other academic institutions, evacuated to Kazan. Only in 1944 it was able to organize from Kazan expedition to Pamir, where the group was able to continue Wexler started in the Caucasus study of cosmic rays and nuclear processes induced by high-energy particles. Without examining in detail the contribution of Wexler in the study of nuclear processes associated with cosmic rays, which were devoted many years of his work, we can say that it was very important and gave many important results. But perhaps the most important was the fact that the study of cosmic rays has led scientists to completely new ideas of particle acceleration. In the mountains Wexler came up with the idea of ??the construction of charged particle accelerators to create your own "cosmic rays."
Since 1944, Veksler moved to a new area, who took first place in his scientific work. Since that time, the name of Wexler forever associated with the creation of large "avtofaziruyuschih" accelerators and the development of new methods of acceleration.
However, he has not lost interest in cosmic rays, and continued to work in this area. Wexler participated in high altitude research expeditions to the Pamirs and during the 1946-1947 period. The cosmic-ray particles detected fantastically high energies inaccessible to accelerators. Wexler was clear that "natural accelerator" of particles to high energies such can not be compared with "the creation of human hands."
Wexler suggested a way out of this impasse in 1944. New principle that operated boosters Wechsler, the author called phase focusing.
By this time, it was created particle accelerator like "cyclotron" (Wexler in a popular newspaper article as explained principle of the cyclotron, "In this device a charged particle moving in a magnetic field by spiraling, continuously accelerating alternating electric field this way to the cyclotron possible to tell. energy particles in the 10-20 million electron volts "). But it became clear that the threshold of 20 MeV, this method does not move.
In the cyclotron magnetic field varies cyclically, dispersing the charged particles. But in the process of acceleration is incremented particle mass (as it should be at service stations - the special theory of relativity). This leads to disruption of the process - after a certain number of revolutions of the magnetic field instead of the acceleration begins to slow down the particles.
Wexler proposes to start slowly increase in time the magnetic field in a cyclotron, feeding magnet alternating current. Then it turns out that the average conversion rate of the particles in a circle is automatically maintained equal to the frequency of the electric field applied to the dees (a pair of magnetic systems curving path and accelerate particles by a magnetic field).
With each passing through the slit dees and particles have different masses receive additional increment (and therefore receive different radius increment by which they wrap up a magnetic field), depending on the voltage field between the dees at the time of acceleration of the particles. Among all the particles can be identified equilibrium ( "lucky") particles. For these particles the mechanism that maintains the constancy of the treatment period, especially simple.
"Lucky" particle during each passage through the slit dees experiencing weight gain and an increase in the radius of the circle. It accurately compensates for the decrease radius caused by the increment of the magnetic field during one revolution. Consequently, "successful" (equilibrium) particles can be accelerated to resonantly until there is an increase of magnetic field.
It turned out that the same ability to have almost all other particles, only acceleration lasts longer. During acceleration, all the particles will oscillate about the equilibrium orbit radius of the particles. The particle energy is equal to the average energy of the equilibrium particle. So, practically almost all particles participate in a resonant acceleration.
If instead of slowly increasing over time the magnetic field in the accelerator (cyclotron), feeding magnet alternating current, to increase the period of the alternating electric field applied to the dees, and then install the "phase stability" mode.
Next Wexler writes:
"It would seem that for the emergence of self-phasing and implementation of resonant acceleration is required to change the time or magnetic field, or during electrical. In fact it is not. Perhaps the most simple in theory (but not easy for the practical implementation) the method of acceleration set author before other methods may be implemented in the time constant magnetic field and a constant frequency. "
In 1955, when Wexler wrote his pamphlet on the accelerator, the principle, as pointed out by the author, formed the basis of the accelerator - microtron - accelerator, requiring high-power microwaves. According to Wexler, microtron "did not get even spread (1955). However, several electron accelerators for energies up to 4 MeV has been working for a number of years."
Wexler was a brilliant popularizer of physics, but unfortunately, because of employment is rarely performed with popular articles.
The principle of phase stability showed that it is possible to have a stable phase region and, therefore, you can change the frequency of the accelerating field without fear to get out of the area of ??the resonant acceleration. You only need to select the correct acceleration phase. By changing the frequency of the field has become possible to easily compensate for the change in the mass of particles. Moreover, the change in frequency has allowed rapid unwinding spiral cyclotron closer to the circle and accelerate particles up until enough magnetic field to keep the particles at a predetermined orbit.
Described accelerator phase focusing, which changes the frequency of the electromagnetic field, called Synchrocyclotron, or Phasotron.
The synchrotron uses a combination of the two principles of phase stability. The first of these is the basis synchrocyclotron, which has already been mentioned - is the change in frequency of the electromagnetic field. The second principle used in synchrotrons - here changes the magnetic field strength.
Since the discovery phase stability scientists and engineers began to design accelerators to billions of electron volts. The first of them in our country was proton accelerator - synchrotron 10 billion electron volts in Dubna.
Design of large accelerator began in 1949 on the initiative of the Veksler and Vavilov, commissioning took place in 1957. The second large accelerator built in Protvino near Serpukhov already at 70 GeV energy. At work there is not only the Soviet researchers, but also the physics of other countries.
But long before the start of the two giant "billions" accelerator at the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences (FIAN), led by the Wechsler were built accelerators of relativistic particles. In 1947 he took an electron accelerator start-up energy of 30 MeV, which served as a model of a larger electron accelerator - synchrotron for 250 MeV. Synchrotron was launched in 1949. These accelerators research staff of the Physics Institute of the USSR Akademiinauk performed top-notch work on meson physics and atomic nucleus.
After starting the Dubna synchrotron, a period of rapid progress in the construction of high-energy accelerators. In the USSR and in other countries have been built and put into action many boosters. These include the already mentioned 70 GeV accelerator at Serpukhov, 50 GeV in Batavia (USA), 35 GeV in Geneva (Switzerland), to 35 GeV in California (USA). Currently, physicists have set themselves the task of creating accelerators for a few tera-electron-volts (TeV - 1012 eV).
In 1944, when the term "self-phasing" was born. Wexler was 37 years old. Wexler appeared gifted organizer of research and head of the scientific school.
The method of phase stability as a ripe fruit waiting visionary scientist who gets hold of it and lift it. After a year, regardless of the principle of phase stability Wexler opened the famous American scientist poppy-Milan. He acknowledged the priority of a Soviet scientist. Mc Milan have repeatedly met with Wexler. They were very friendly, and the friendship of two remarkable scientists had no way overshadowed until his death Wexler.
Accelerators, built in recent years, although based on the principle of self-focusing Wexler, but, of course, significantly improved compared to the first generation of machines.
In addition to the phase stability, Wexler suggested other ideas of particle acceleration, which proved to be very fruitful. The development of these ideas Wexler extensively engaged in the USSR and other countries.
In March 1958, the House of Scientists on Kropotkin Street held the traditional annual meeting of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Wexler introduced the idea of ??accelerating the new principle, which he called "coherent". It allows not only to accelerate the individual particles, but plasma clot, consisting of a large number of particles. "Coherent" acceleration method as gently spoken Wexler in 1958, allows you to think about the possibility of accelerating particles to energies a thousand billion electron volts or higher.
In 1962, Wexler led a delegation of scientists flew to Geneva to participate in the International Conference on High Energy Physics. Among the forty members of the Soviet delegation were such big physics as Alikhanov, Bogolyubov, DIBlokhintsev, Pomeranchuk, MA Markov. Many scientists who were part of the delegation were experts on accelerators and students Wexler.
Vladimir Veksler for several years was the chairman of the Commission on High Energy Physics of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics.
American Award "Atoms for Peace" was awarded - October 25, 1963 Wexler and his American counterpart - the director of the University of California Radiation Laboratory, Lawrence Edwin McMillan.
Wexler was the permanent director of the Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Now Wechsler stay in this city reminds nazvannnaya his name street.
In Dubna many years concentrated research work Wechsler. He combined his work at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research work at the Physical Institute named after PN Lebedev, where in the distant youth began his career researcher, was a professor at Moscow State University, where he headed the department.
In 1963, Wexler was elected an academician-secretary of the Department of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of the USSR and stretch held this important post.
Scientific advances Veksler were highly appreciated by being awarded the State Prize of the first degree and the Lenin Prize (1959). Outstanding scientific, pedagogical, organizational and public work of the scientist was awarded three Orders of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner of Labor and medals of the USSR.
Vladimir Veksler died September 20, 1966 of reinfarction. He was only 59 years old. In life, he always seemed younger than his years, was an energetic, active and tireless.