Date of Birth: 03/29/1849
Place of birth: Kaluga
Author of "The biological basis of comparative psychology", 1910 - 1913 and "The emergence and development of mental abilities", 1924 - 1929. He developed a special method of research by comparing the behavior of family in species of animals ( "biological method"). Conducted studies of instinctive behavior, on the basis of which advanced the hypothesis that the variability of instincts.