Date of Birth: 11/21/1867
Place of birth: Moscow
Born into a noble family. His father - a respectable architect Nikolai I., mother - Anna D. (nee Glick), a Greek by birth. Vladimir was the first child of the 3 children in the family.
His childhood years were marred by family tragedy: in 1873 there was a gap between the parents. 5-year-old Vladimir was left to live with his father and the other children moved in with his mother, who was reunited with A.Chugaevym, humble teacher of physics, and to which she has experienced for many years affection.
In the same year, Anna Dmitrievna and Chugaeva a son Lev, who later became a famous chemist. That L.Chugaev - his brother, mother and I. learned only in 1907, and since that time the brothers that bring exceptional devotion to science and similarity of characters, touching care for one another.
When Vladimir was 8 years old, his mother, against the will of his father, who wanted his son to do his military career, he gave it to the preparatory class of the gymnasium. However, the boy`s illness iz-za classes soon had to stop and go to the home training under the guidance of his mother`s brother, D.Gliki. This allowed Vladimir easily enroll in the 2nd grade of the 3rd Moscow Cadet Corps. In junior high gymnasium VI did not differ a great success and diligence. The turning point came in the spring of 1882, when he was in 6th grade. The boy is very interested in the course of physics, especially the theory of the atomic structure of matter. After graduating from the Cadet Corps was among the first students, 16-year-old Ivan entered the third Alexandrov Military School. However, after 2 years of study in it, he refused to produce an officer of infantry troops and decided to immediately continue their education at St. Michael School in St. Petersburg, where in the last year taught chemical disciplines. In 1887, successfully graduating from college, the young officer began to military service in Serpukhov near Moscow as the head of the gun-school in the 2nd Reserve Artillery Brigade. All the free time devoted I. study courses in mathematics, chemistry and artillery in order to enter the military academy.
In 1889 he successfully passed the competitive examination in the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy in St. Petersburg, from which he graduated in 1892 under the first category and was left with her as a tutor and at the same time the head of the chemical laboratory assistant, and since June 1895 became a full professor of chemistry . Of great importance for the formation of IM as a scientist had provided him a 2-year-long research trip in the chemical laboratory of the University of Munich, led A.Bayerom, who later became a Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In its report, AI in August 1897, wrote: "Produced by me, together with Professor Bayer, a study has enriched chemistry Cato ... another interesting fact, which is kind of endorsement of concepts of stereochemistry, or the hypothesis of a spatial arrangement of atoms in molecules of organic compounds ... in early November 1896, I began to work independently in the Munich laboratory. " In Munich I. completed (1897) begun in St. Petersburg studies on the synthesis and study of the structure of isoprene, which allowed to identify new ways to produce unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Returning from a research trip, I. quickly began to move up the career ladder in the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy (since 1899 - an extraordinary, since 1902 - an ordinary professor of chemistry, since 1909 - head of the chemical laboratory of the Academy, in 1911 - general Major, in 1914 - professor Emeritus). The main direction of his scientific activity was the study of catalysis phenomena at high temperatures and pressures. In 1901-1905 gg. He thoroughly studied the catalytic thermal conversion reaction of alcohols by offering new methods for the synthesis of aldehydes, esters, olefins, and later diene hydrocarbons; carried out a study of the catalytic properties of aluminum oxide, which has become one of the most common in the chemistry of catalysts. AI is considered to be a pioneer in the introduction of the practice of heterogeneous catalysis, high pressure (1900), and designed them in 1904, the instrument - "bomb Ipatief" - became the prototype is now used in chemical reactors and autoclaves practice a new type. In 1909, IG and high pressures employed for inorganic reactions, in particular, the displacement of the aqueous solutions of metal salts with hydrogen. In the same year he established the first principle vozmozhnostpolucheniya from ethyl alcohol of butadiene (butadiene), an aluminum catalyst with a yield of 3-5%. Subsequently found worldwide application butadiene as the main monomer in the production of synthetic rubber. AI is also the first to apply the multicomponent catalysts. For example, recovery of camphor reactions borneol, borneol digidratatsii in camphene camphene hydrogenation in izokamfen occurring with different catalysts, it has shown the possibility of combining the oxidation-reduction and dehydration reactions in a direct process.
In dalneyshm I. multifunctional catalysts used in the cracking, reforming, and other refining processes. For research I. characterized by a combination of high level theoretical research to the requirements of industrial practice. He has developed numerous industrially important processes such as the synthesis of polimerbenzinov based gaseous olefins - cracking waste; Alkylation of aromatic and paraffinic hydrocarbons with olefins to produce valuable chemical products, a number of process oil cracking and reforming. In 1913, he was the first chemists to polymerize ethylene, pointing to the possibility of varying molecular weight polyethylene.
I. showed himself an outstanding organizer during the First World War, when in 1915, already a lieutenant-general, headed the Chemical Committee of the Main Artillery Directorate, carried out the supply of military products Front chemistry, as well as supervised the construction of new chemical plants, including Russia`s first plant for the production of synthetic nitric acid oxidation of ammonia (put into operation in 1917). About his activities as chairman of the Committee I. Chemical she told in the book "The work of the chemical industry on the defense during the War" (1920). During the war, he experienced a personal tragedy - in 1916 on the German front was killed by his eldest son, Dmitri.
After the October revolution of 1917, not taking it internally and staying at a staunch supporter of a constitutional monarchy, I., however, chose the path of cooperation with the Soviet authorities. He resolutely refused numerous offers to go to the West or to join the White Army. The divergence of opinion led to a split in the family: I. departed from even the closest person - son Nicholas, who left Russia with the White Guards and later died in Africa during the test he had invented an anti-yellow fever. The younger son of Vladimir, who later became a chemist, also renounced his father, publicly announcing it December 29, 1936 at the General Meeting of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The tragic break with his sons Ivan felt keenly throughout his life.
In the first post-revolutionary years I. actively involved in the economic construction. In 1918 the Chemical Committee, which he led, was disbanded, and on its basis the Division of Chemical Industry Supreme Economic Council was created. the VI himself headed the Commission on the demobilization of the chemical industry (later renamed the Commission of new productions) at the Supreme Economic Council. I. spent only hard work to establish production facilities in the devastated civil war plants, the development of new, relevant republic of chemical products. A brilliant scientist, theoretician and experimenter at the same time, a connoisseur of the chemical industry, he was able to see the future development of their science. Back in September 1918, AI had two meetings of its Commission with the participation of the largest Chemical (A.Favorskogo, N.Zelinskogo, S.Lebedeva, B.Byzoeva et al.), Devoted to the question of the formulation of experiments on the production of synthetic rubber in the plant scale . Scientists have identified the most promising way to study synthetic oils rubber from ethyl alcohol (Lebedev) and oil (B.Byzoev) implemented subsequently for the first time in the world in our country. In March 1920, at a meeting of the Technical Council of the Department of Chemical Industry Supreme Economic Council I. delivered a detailed report on the need for Radium Institute, "designed to unite and direct all the work on radioactivity." Radium Institute was established in 1922 and has made a significant contribution to the development of the national economy and the country`s defense. In 1921 he headed the newly created VI Main chemical industry control of the Supreme Economic Council (Glavhim), ie He became the leader of the industry of national economy; He became a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council. In 1922 by the decision of the Government of I. was incorporated as an expert on scientific and theoretical questions of the delegation to the Genoa conference. In 1923-1926 gg. He also served as chairman of the Chemical Committee of the Revolutionary Military Council, by managing military-chemical works. VI was the initiator of the creation of the Voluntary Society for Assistance of mass development of chemistry and the chemical industry (Dobrohim) in the USSR. Since May 1924 served as deputy chairman of the central committee Dobrohima (Chairman - Trotsky); in 1927 this company was reorganized in Osoaviakhim.
Mid 20s. It turned out to be the most fruitful for the scientific work and research .: it attracted attention of major foreign corporations. At the beginning of 1927, he received an offer from the leaders of the Society of Bavarian nitrogen plants, and other companies to conduct joint research on organic and inorganic chemistry. One of the items of the contract was fixed the right IM for inventions to be made to them in Germany: they all had to be patented by the company in Germany with attribution IV, and in the USSR, he received the right to patent their own name and they, under the contract, donated the property of the USSR. The Soviet Government found the German side offers acceptable to the Soviet Union and gave consent to the AI ??research in Germany under the condition that he would report annually on their work at the meeting of the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council. I do not objected to this decision and the Academy of Sciences. June 6, 1929 the Presidium of the Supreme Economic Council, having heard the report on the work of AI in Germany (28 September 1928), recognized that it led to a very important discovery. It was especially noted that the high-pressure laboratory, created by him in Leningrad in 1927 "becomes now a school of chemists working at high pressures and temperatures, and will continue to play a huge role in the training of new cadres of workers in this field" . Laboratory in 1929 was transformed into the Institute of High Pressure, which was headed by I. before his departure from the USSR in 1930
I thought if those years I. possibility to stay in the West? In his memoirs, published in the US (1945), he touches on this subject. During one of the trips to Germany in 1927 he was invited to visit the Nobel laureate V.Nernstu. There`s at lunch time, recalls. "One of the German professors asked me why I did not leave the Soviet Union and not relocated abroad to continue his scientific work, where I can find, of course, far more amenities than in their homeland. I at that time did not have the slightest idea to leave their country ... I was not slow to answer that as a patriot of his homeland is to stay in it until the end of my life and devote all my strength. Professor Einstein heard my answer, and said loudly: "Here is the answer and I fully agree with, and we must do. "and that`s passed 4-5 years after this conversation, and we both broke our principle: we are now immigrants and did not return to their home countries in our personal decision, and not because they were driven our governments ... ".
I. undoubtedly enjoyed the confidence of the Soviet Government. In 1927, he was on a business trip to Switzerland to get acquainted with a new method of manufacturing cellulose powder. The results of the mission were discussed at a secret meeting of the Scientific and Technical Council of the Military Chemical Trust. "That trust, that the Bolsheviks have given me, I very much appreciated and I can in good conscience say that he never allowed himself to abuse them," - wrote in his memoirs VI. AI has repeatedly met with Lenin, who respectfully called scientist "head of our chemical industry." In May 1927 in Moscow, scientific and technical institutions, public and industrial organizations solemnly celebrated the 60th anniversary of VI and the 35th anniversary of his scientific activity. In 1929 he published a collection of articles dedicated to the life and work of Ivan, which included memories of major domestic and foreign scientists - N.Zelinskogo, A.Chichibabina, G.Brediga, K.Matinona, K.Fayansa and OE in the same I. year was awarded the highest scientific award - named after Vladimir Lenin Prize for his work in chemistry. It would seem that there were no signs of danger to the venerable scholar, however, began in 1929 the arrests of colleagues and close friends VI - professor P.Palchinskogo engineer V.Kamzolkina, Beloved Disciple I. - G.Godzhello, a member of the board of Glavhima V.Kravtsa etc. -. I testified chtoskoro could come and turn. Especially excited MI arrest of his close friend, Professor E.Shpitalskogo sent to prison immediately after the election of a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1929). I. The petition for his release have failed. From many of his friends, including from government circles, I. began to receive strictly confidential, but credible warning that it is the closest candidate for arrest. I. also realized how dangerous it became to old ties with the royal family and high royal dignitaries, his general`s past business contacts with Trotsky and other "opposition", "wreckers" and "enemies of the people". In this situation, he took for himself the decision to leave the USSR.
In June 1930, together with his wife Varvara he went to Berlin to take part in the 2nd International Energy Congress, after which received the permission of the Soviet government and the USSR Academy of Sciences to stay on treatment for 1 year. In June-August 1930, he visited France and England arrived in the US in September, first in New York and then in Chicago, where he was a complicated operation on his throat had been done. Here, in the University of Chicago, he began to read lectures on catalysis and simultaneously started experimental work on the contract with the firm "Universal Oil Products Co" in a well-equipped laboratory for him. Up until 1936 I. regularly sent to the USSR the results of their work performed in the United States. In 1936, the Soviet Union was its fundamental monograph "The catalytic reaction at high temperatures and pressures"; AI received numerous invitations to return. In their responses, I. honestly and openly laid out the reasons that prevented his return to the USSR. December 29, 1936 the General Meeting of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR adopted a resolution on the withdrawal of the title of academician AI, and a week later, January 5, 1937, the Central Executive Committee of the USSR Union deprived of his Soviet citizenship. He was forever banned from entering the USSR. Some of his closest disciples suffered repression.
While in the US, I. became rich and very famous man. In addition to teaching at the University of Chicago and a consultant in the oil company, he was also a professor and director of the Laboratory of Catalysis and high pressures in Nortuesternskom University in Evanston (near Chicago), now bears his name. All the money he earned he invested in the development laboratory, inviting only employ Russian and Americans, who knew Russian. In 1937, Ivan was named US "Person of the Year", being selected out of 1,000 applicants for the title. In 1939 he was elected a member of the US National Academy, and in the same year in Paris were handed to him the highest award of the French Chemical Society - Medal A.Lavuvze. In November 1942, the US noted its 75th anniversary and half a century of scientific activity. At the solemn meeting organized on the occasion of the American Chemical Society, Nobel laureate R.Vilshtetter stated: "Never in the history of chemistry it does not appear a greater man than I.". Despite the fame, recognition, for many years lived in the United States, Ivan continued to feel a stranger here. He did not have a car, I turned down the opportunity to buy a comfortable house on the shore of Lake Michigan. Since his arrival in Chicago until his death wife I. rented a modest room, living closed. His rare letters to relatives in Leningrad imbued with nostalgia for their native metam. Being far away from their motherland, II never ceased to be interested life of the Soviet people, the achievements of Soviet science. Deeply touched his defeat and the victory of the Red Army during the war. To brighten up the loneliness and I. My wife and I have adopted and brought up 2 Russian orphan girls. Since 1944 AI has repeatedly attempted to return to the USSR, but always refused. Despite his advanced age, II until his death he worked in his lab.
December 29, 1990 General Meeting of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR adopted a resolution on the restoration (posthumously) VI in the members of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
Cit .: The life of a chemist. Memories t.1-2. New York, 1945.
Lit .: Kuznetsov VI, Maksimenko AM Vladimir Nikolayevich Ipatiev, 1867-1952. Moscow, 1992.
Arch .: Arch. Russian Academy of Sciences, p. 941, op. 1 (pers V.N.Ipateva fund.); RSHA, p. 740, op. 18, 295 g.; RGAE, p. 3106, op. 1, 175 d.; RGVIA, p. 310 op.1, d. 5579.