Date of Birth: 03/01/1828
In 1858, he was editor of the ministry; in 1859 he moved to the Ministry of Finance; with the appointment of a member of the Commission on the device zemstvo banks B. was repeatedly komandiruem in different provinces: in 1860 for the collection of data about the attitude of the landlords to the question about the structure of land banks in 1862 and 1864 for the collection of information about the industry and trade in 1867 for the economic review treasury of the Ural mining, in 1869 for the study of Russian centers of manufacturing industry, in 1879 for the collection of data on the situation of factory production. These trips gave AB the opportunity to get acquainted with the situation of Russian industry in the different regions (Central, Volga, Urals) and the materials they collected in this way, it forms the basis of many of his extensive works. These include: "Sketches of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair" (Wiley, 1865); "Ural mountain farming" (St. Petersburg, 1869.); "The grain trade in the North-East of Russia" (1870); "The national economy of Russia", "Moscow (Central) industrial area" (SPb., 1882 - 85, and published in French, St. Petersburg, 1886.); "Of the All-Russia Art and Industry Exhibition 1882 in Moscow Report" (6 m under the editorship of PB and its overall review, 1883 -. 84). B. was assigned also to study the various issues of the financial and public sector abroad: in 1865 on the organization of land banks, in 1868 on the question of the manufacture of items for national defense in 1875 to review the status of the most important foreign universities. From 1868 to 1878 B. lectured on financial law and political economy at the Alexander Lyceum. B. was the provincial zemstvo vowels Moscow in 1868 and 1880. In 1885, B. was appointed senator (at the Department of Heraldry). In 1864 B. was elected to the Academy of Sciences assistant professor of statistics. Scientific and literary activities B. was as versatile as its administrative, teaching and social activities. In addition to a vast number of items of economic and journalistic content in newspapers and magazines (. See a list of them in the "critical-biographical dictionary" Vengerov SA, T II.), He wrote: "land-credit and modern organization in Europe" (St. ., 1860); "On some phenomena of money circulation in Russia in connection with industry, trade and credit" (1863), "On the influence of economics on public life in modern Europe" (SPb., 1867 and in French in "Memoirs" Academy of Sciences ); "Government revenue, I. The Documents on marital taxes" (St. Petersburg, 1868.); "Russian State revenues" (St. Petersburg, 1872, in French as well.) "War and Revolution" (1873); "Zemsky institutions and self-government" (Wiley, 1874); "State and Society" (SPb., 1882). In 1873 - 80 years B. published the "Compendium of the state of knowledge" (ie, I - VIII;. Here were placed articles and monographs St. Andrew`s professors Gorchakov, Gradovsky, Martens, Sergeyevich, Turner, of the publisher, etc.). Edited by B. came out "Bulletin of the Imperial Geographical Society" (1857 - 58) and the "Collection of statistical data on Russia" (1858). Under his editorship translated: B. Hildebrandt "Historical review of the political and economic systems" (St. Petersburg, 1861.) And Courcelles-Senelya "Banks" (1862). - B. The above printed works fall into two groups: journalistic essays and articles, and special studies on economic and financial issues, taken for the most part, on behalf of various government agencies. Among the works of the first category should be emphasized articles were printed shortly before the peasant reform in "Russian Messenger": "The aristocracy and the interests of the nobility" and the book "The Zemsky institutions and self-government" (1874). The main idea of ??the first operation is that our upper class should abandon the artificial privileges and take a dominant place at the head of public territorial self-government. BA was in favor of the formation of peasant ownership of land by means of the repurchase transaction in favor of communal forms of peasant land tenure. The work on land institutions B. pointed to the main, in his opinion, the lack of reform of the County, "Zemsky institutions are not introduced into the general system of our governance, and set beside them as separate state and public bodies which have no organic links with the system and they can not be without these relations continue to develop a healthy way. " - Organized our Zemstvo is some private-public institutions, without any power and responsibility, but with an important state law imposing taxes and duties of people. The same idea, B. develops a collection of articles, "State and Society" (1882). "Splitting the Zemstvo and the treasury of two mutually independent organism produces the most evil state ailments and sooner or later leads to the destruction or self-government, or the state." Everywhere was "intolerable ... the oppression of a police state, and caused them extreme bureaucratic administrative centralization", so B. firmly believes that "the beginning of self-non-estate" will form the basis of the forthcoming reform of local government. Of the works of economic and financial content of the most valuable by the abundance of material collected in them, the data are observational studies undertaken on behalf of various government agencies. Among them the most interesting book "The national economy of Russia", in which the author gives very detailed information about our industrial life in the Moscow and Volga regions. research method differs great care; official figures and information are eliminated as the unreliable, and all messages and conclusions are based solely on materials collected personally. Description of Industry and Trade of the individual regions are preceded by historical, geographical and ethnographic essays, in connection with the general economic performance. A lot of information about the handicraft industries, on the speed of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair and so on. Significantly weaker B. article devoted to abstract arguments about the importance of political and economic science or "pernicious influence of French political ideas," of "cosmopolitan template constitution". Since the issues of practical public policy views B. show understanding of the cultural needs of the time, so far, on the contrary, his theoretical considerations differ vague nebula and backwardness. B. does not go beyond Adam Smith`s doctrine in its original pure form. Contemporary struggle of scientific directions in economic science, the emergence of the historical school and Katheder Socialism he completely ignores. The narrowness of its obsolete economic outlook was reflected in his latest official note: "Observations and considerations on the validity of new statutes factory and factory inspection." B. Here inherent ability to understand the issues of practical policy changes to it, and it is negatively related to our experience of factory legislation, seeing in it an invasion of freedom of contract between the employer and the workers and excessive care over the working estate. The privacy B. differed high sociability and sympathy enjoyed in various circles of society. He, incidentally, he was the founder of the so-called "economic dinners", which collects monthly in St. Petersburg, scientists and government officials and discussed the current issues of the economy and the financial economy. - Wed .: L. Slonim, an article in "critical-biographical dictionary" SA Vengerov.