Date of Birth: 08/12/1681
Place of birth: Horsens
Expedition Vitus Bering
Bering (Vitus, or Ivan, as he was called in Russia) - Captain-Commander, the first Russian explorer, after whom is named the strait separating Asia from America (although the first visited him in 1648, Cossack Dezhnev). The first explored the northeast. coast of Kamchatka, eastern. part of Asia, on. St. Lawrence about. St. Diomede; first of all European explorers visited the Sea and Kamchatka Bobrovskoye, later called the Bering, and opened a chain of in-Aleutian, islands Shumagin, Misty sat. the western part of America and the bay of St. Elijah. - Behring was born in 1680 in Jutland, in the Russian naval service he entered in 1704, with the rank of non-commissioned lieutenant. Inviting him, Peter was based on representations of him Sievers and Senyavin who claimed that he was "in the East Indies was and usage knows." According to the testimony of Miller, in 1707 Behring was a lieutenant, and in 1710 - Lieutenant Commander. It is not known only in what he sailed the seas at this time and whether he commanded the courts or was under the command of. 1714 - 16 years. Behring spent almost all the time at sea, visited in Copenhagen and in Arkhangelsk. From 1716 to 1723 information about the life of Bering no. By 1723 in the journals of the Admiralty Board is a resolution on the resignation of Bering, which he requested, without achieving the desired them to the rank of captain of the first rank. But next year, the emperor gave orders to invite the board again at the service of Bering and give him the rank of captain 1st rank. Since then (1724), the Bering always served the Russian Navy until his death and all their activities devoted to the solution of the question put to him the great transformer "or not connected Asia with America." With this question and a request to equip the expedition first turned to Peter Dutch scientists during his stay in the Netherlands, in 1717 the same request to Peter repeated and the Paris Academy of Sciences. Responsive converter sympathetic attitude to their request, but political events forced him to postpone the execution of the case before 1725. December 23, 1724, he personally wrote the following instructions for the head of the expedition of Vitus Bering:
1) must in Kamchatka or in another place there to make one or two boats with decks,
2) add-on bots near the ground, which goes to the North and by the hope of (Inasmuch thereof not fully aware), it seems that land of the America,
3) to seek, where onaya consorted with America: and to get to any city European possessions, or if they see a ship of European visit from him as aforesaid bush called and take the letter and by visit on shore and take a true statement and put on map to come here.
January 24, 1725 left St. Petersburg satellite Bering - Chirikov with his team. 8 February he arrived in Vologda, where a week later he was joined by Behring with other members of the expedition. The number of all ranks, the participants in the expedition as shipped from St. Petersburg, and joined in the Okhotsk Tobolsk, stretched to 20 and all under the command of Bering chelovekokolo was 100. Of these, the more prominent and left their "magazines" should be called, other than said Lieutenant Alexei Chirikov, midshipman, later midshipman Peter Chaplin and Lieutenant Martin Shpanberg. - Distance from Vologda to Tobolsk expedition, dubbed the First Kamchatka Expedition, held in 43 days. After a month of rest it for 11 doschannikah continued its journey along the Irtysh. May 23 Chaplin, with a detachment of 10 people was sent forward, toward Yakutsk. It`s almost summer `25 team spent on the road. Prozimovav in Ilimsk, where he was sent Shpanberg, with a detachment of 39 people, Const Kutsyuy jail, on the Yenisei, for the construction of 15 barges, Behring 26 May 1726 on new ships sailed down the Yenisei. July 16 Bering arrived in Yakutsk, and only 30 July 1727 for the third year by the administration of St. Petersburg, he finally arrived in Okhotsk, where should the real journey was to begin. Zapasshis here with food and new ships, the expedition on August 22 came from the Okhotsk Sea and arrived in Bolsheretsk (Kamchatka) after two weeks. Hence, by land went to the Lower Kamchatsk, where it arrived 11 March 1728, having used all the way (883 mile) for about 2 months. Having loaded in Nizhne-Kamchatsk boat with food - ". St. Gabriel", built in the same place, with all his Bering expedition sat on him, and July 13, 1728 came from the mouth of the river. Kamchatka in the sea, holding on northbound between Asia and America. After spending over a month in the sea voyage between strangers to him quite beaches Bering finally reached 67 | 18` s. w. and making sure here, extends to the west, and that therefore "it is impossible to connect Asia with the United States" on the basis of the testimony of the Chukchi, which further shore, he considered its mission accomplished and with the consent of all members of the expedition, who feared a "hit accidentally in the ice," turned back. September 2, 1728 Behring was already in the mouth of Kamchatka, which had wintered, and drove across the sea to the east, but not finding 200-verst (according to his calculations) lands offshore Kamchatka June 5 next year, turned back, skirted m . Shoulder and July 3 came into Bolsheretsk. After 20 days he was in the mouth of the river. Hunt, from which went way back to St. Petersburg, which arrived March 1, 1730 where he presented his government journal, maps, and the two sentences in which, among other things, expressed the desire to outfit a new expedition for the study of sowing. and sat down. east. Siberian coast. Admiralteystkaya board that reviewed his journal and maps though not entirely trust the discovery of Bering made yet due to "difficulties of the expedition" to obtain for him the rank kapitankomandora and monetary reward - in the amount of 1,000 rubles. Approved were the Senate and Admir. College and "suggestions" Bering, but for this endorsement was followed (December 28th. 1732), and the highest resolution to appoint a new expedition, known under the name of the second Kamchatka expedition. Its aim was delivered to explore the Arctic Ocean coast of Dvina River to the east of the strait between the mainland and the sea and swim to America. To better accomplish this goal expedition was divided into several units. One of them, under the command of Muravyov and Pavlova, began exploring the coast of the mouth of the Dvina to the Ob. During the 1784 - 35 years. they were able to reach only to muddy lips. The following year, Muravyov, put on trial along with Pavlov for "lewd misconduct", was replaced by Lieutenant Malygin, who in 1737 September 11 finally reached the mouth of the river. Obi.
Another detachment, which was scheduled to sail on in. R. Obi to the Chukchi Nose was under the command of Lieutenant Ovtsyna. But the latter as a permanent winter would find at the time of departure, and during the three years (1735 - 1737 YG) it is only in the last year managed to up the Ob to get to 72 | 30` s. w. Of the other members of this order, the speakers for independent research, it should be pointed Pronchishchev lieutenant, who managed to get to have. Taimyr (1736), Lassetusa killed along with a significant portion of his party in Harulah between Yanoyu and Indigirka (1735), and Lieutenant Laptev, has almost more of all participants, after Chirikov, the second Kamchatka expedition rights in memory about him as a vigorous, active and happy traveler. After an unsuccessful attempt in 1736 to get from Yakutsk to Kamchatka, he had in mind and Lassetsius, Laptev, by order of the Senate, in 1739, 29 June came out of the Lena and the end of August reached a river. Indigirka, wintered here, and with the onset of summer sailed along the coast to the Kolyma, where in 1740 came on foot through the Anadyr fort in Yakutsk. Finally, the implementation of, so to speak, the third task - to swim the sea to America, fell on the very Bering. He spoke from St. Petersburg at the beginning of 1733, but for a range of ways, slow to transport a plurality of stores, and finally due to obstacles encountered in the structure of Okhotsk during the four sea-going vessels could go out into the sea of Okhotsk only in September 1740. Arriving at the harbor of Petropavlovsk, he remained there for the winter. June 4, 1741 Behring went to sea on two courts: "St. Peter" and "St. Paul", one of which was commanded Chirikov. At the preliminary council it was decided to hold the south-east direction until they meet the ground. But without seeing it, and under 50 | m., they turn directly to the east. Soon they put asunder storm and they continue to go separately, without seeing more than ever. This eastward Chirikov first fortunate to meet the land - July 15 at 56 |, and Bering - 18 July, at 58 | 28` s. w. Once sent to the bank people did not return, and the other landing due to lack of rowing boats do not be, Chirikov turned back to Kamchatka. Behring, meanwhile, opens the bay of St. Elijah, representing a completely safe harbor, adjacent to the mainland island unknown to him, cruising off the coast, in an unknown sea during September and October, when the storm was raging strong, and finally decided to go way back, in Kamchatka. This return cost the lives of many members of the expedition and the captain himself. A terrible storm and the dilapidated state of the vessel and gear made it a plaything of the wind, and a lack of food, fresh water, disease and cold made it impossible not only to fight floating with the wind, but the most necessary to perform on the ship. In this helpless condition he was first nailed to the underwater rock, and then surging wave tossed ship through the reef on a quiet place, where the depth of 41/2 yards and 300 yards from shore lowered anchor in the sandy bottom. It was the island Avacha, now called Bering. It is located 185 km. from Kamchatka under 55 | 17` s. w. and 165 | 46 s. d. (of Greenwich), belongs to the coastal region of Siberia, a space of about 1600 square meters. km. treeless and infertility but rich in fur-bearing animals. It is surrounded by reefs and only in one place is free, but a narrow passage. This is a boat and got Bering. With some difficulty landed on his travelers, not knowing where they are and how to get from here to Kamchatka, almost totally devoid of victuals and suffering from various diseases. These factors have reduced the grave so many of them and yet most of Bering, who died on December 8, 1741 Survivors satellites Bering honored its commander, as best they could: removed his body from the pit in which he was standing waist-deep piled sand from the cold They betrayed the ground and over the grave put wooden cross replaced in 1822 a monument; in 1866 it was raised another monument in Petropavlovsk. So he ended his life the first Russian navigator, Vitus Bering, a man quite educated at that time, a devout, beloved for his "meekness and humility," but rather neenergichny and timid traveler, who, according to Shtedlera, his companion, was more capable of " with exemplary zeal and diligence to fulfill orders superiors, "and" often himself admitted that the second Kamchatka expedition over its forces. " And let`s say a few words about the future of satellite Bering. Eating flesh of marine animals (otters, sea cats, etc.), They lived here until August next year (1742). Finally we decided from the remnants of the broken ship to build a new, and on it in early August left in the sea. 25 of this month, they saw the coast of Kamchatka, and 27 anchored in the port of Petropavlovsk. In 1743 they arrived at their vessel in Okhotsk, from here went to St. Petersburg, which reached far from all who spoke of Okhotsk. The last returned to St. Petersburg Chirikov (1747) and Uessel (1749). Despite numerous difficulties, largely insurmountable for the then means that this expedition has significantly expanded the geographical information about the shores of the Arctic Ocean, the lower reaches of large Siberian rivers, introduced as the ethnographic specificities of the inhabitants of Siberia and showed opportunity to swim tions in the Arctic Ocean, along the coast, in during the summer time.