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Vitaliy Goldanskiy

Picture of Vitaliy Goldanskiy

Date of Birth: 06/18/1923

Age: 77

Place of birth: Vitebsk

Citizenship: Russia

Background

VI Gol`danskii possessed extraordinary literary talents. He wrote brilliant and scholarly articles and monographs, and prose, and poetry, and humorous pieces, and "cruise" words and phrases. For a long time it was published on the 16th page of the "Literary newspaper", he was deputy chairman of the All-Union Society "Knowledge".

Born June 18, 1923 in the city of Vitebsk in the teacher`s family.

Gol`danskii family lived in Vitebsk, who later became world famous as the birthplace of Mark Chagall. Later they moved to Leningrad, where Vitali went to school.

Parents, Joseph and Judith, and the older sister of the World have never been members of the party, but, like many at the time, firmly believed in the ideals of communism, in the wisdom and infallibility of Stalin. Their faith was passed and Vitaly. However, in 1937-1938, their share fell out ordeal. Two friends and half-brother were shot by the mother. Not shifting struck him grief, of a heart attack and died soon after his father. Faith mother and sister collapsed overnight. But, wanting to protect against possible trouble Vitali and the shock, they never openly showed their painful experiences.

The first passion was history Vitali. At age 12, he was given permission to visit the Leningrad Public Library, and the boy`s favorite pastime was reading books on history, especially of old newspapers and magazines. However, from time to time appear and new aspirations, new ideas. Like many young people of that time, Vitaly wanted to get to Madrid, to fight fascism and defend the romantic ideal - the Spanish Republic.

However, books and science still stood in the first place. In 9th grade Vitaly fascinated chemistry, especially the problem of radioactivity. There was the idea of ??the different emissions, many questions about their nature and the nature of human exposure. Schoolboy even wrote a letter to the Moscow Academy of Sciences, where it was forwarded to Leningrad, one of the largest Soviet oncologists - L.M.Shabadu. He invited the boy to his laboratory, all thoroughly explained, gave the guinea pig and advised to seriously address the chemistry.

She graduated from the school in 1939 Vitaly entered the chemistry faculty of Leningrad University. In the prewar years, the University has become a real holiday for joining him in a great life. Later he would say: "Leningrad for me - not just a great and beautiful city. It`s a huge part of life, which is associated with an unforgettable joy and sorrow, happy time of childhood and school, first friends and first student years, first teacher and first love, to the last detail familiar and painfully homes and streets, trench forty one summer and winter blockade, parents` graves and the living memory of the heart. "

The war caught Vitaly student, has just passed the exams for all the second year. The memories of war still seemed to him unreal: the construction of trenches near Novgorod, a bullet wound in the bombing, the search for missile nights at the end of forty-one, the work of the district committee of the Komsomol, the hunger, the hospital, finally, the "Road of Life" across Lake Ladoga, and a three-week road cold freight train in Kazan with his mother and sister.

Once in Kazan in April 1942, Vitaly Gol`danskii immediately resumed his studies at the Chemistry Department of the local university. He gradually came back to life after suffering the hardships of siege of Leningrad. Here he first began to combine his studies at the famous University and modest job as a laboratory assistant in one of the institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, which also was evacuated to Kazan, in the laboratory corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences S.Z.Roginskogo. Students of Kazan University came after a unique opportunity to listen to the lectures of outstanding scientists of the country - academicians Nesmeyanov, P.A.Rebindera and other famous physicists and chemists.

Becoming the fifth year, VI Gol`danskii moves together with the laboratory in Moscow. Simultaneously with the transfer to a fifth year of the chemistry faculty of Moscow State University, he became a junior research fellow of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. And again, as in Kazan, seminars, lectures and examinations are combined with intensive daily work in the laboratory. All this has allowed to successfully defend in 1944 thesis project.

After graduation, he entered the VI Gol`danskii graduate of the Institute of Chemical Physics, where his supervisor and mentor was an outstanding scientist Nikolai Semyonov, udostoennyyv 1956 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1947, VI Gol`danskii brilliantly defended his thesis for the degree of Candidate of Chemical Sciences.

After the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Institute of Chemical Physics, as well as many other scientific institutions, it has focused its research on the nuclear issue, and Vitaly I. first encountered the field of neutron physics. In 1949-1950, he was with a group of scientists involved in conducting unique experiments on Synchrocyclotron in Dubna. Results of experiments formed the basis for the creation of nuclear fuel, and develop new opportunities for nuclear energy projects.

VI Gol`danskii few years he worked in the Lebedev Physical Institute, where learned the basics of the different areas of physics. There he performed the classic studies on electromagnetic polarizability of hadrons and the definition of the constants of the polarizability of the proton, the study "Vavilov-Cherenkov" radiation of cosmic particles in the atmosphere, predicted the existence and properties of unknown neutron-deficient isotopes, theorized a new kind of radioactive decay - two-proton radioactivity at whose nuclei emit just a couple of its constituent particles (nucleons) - the proton or neutron. This discovery was confirmed experimentally only in the middle 80s.

In 1952, VI Gol`danskii defended his doctoral thesis at the Academic Council, which was chaired by IV Kurchatov.

In subsequent years, VI Gol`danskii again at the Institute of Chemical Physics. Here he laid the foundation, and has successfully developed a new field of science - nuclear chemistry, which studies the mutual connection and influence the chemical properties of the substance and the characteristics of the transformation of nuclei and elementary particles. The observed phenomena have given unique information about the structural and dynamic properties of molecular and crystalline environment of these nuclei. He opened the quantum low-temperature limit of the speed of chemical reactions. His results were outstanding value razrabotkeproblem chemical and prebiotic evolution. It became clear that there may be a process of formation of organic molecules up to the proteins in a low-temperature environment of outer space.

Coming from the laboratory stage to the professor, head of the laboratory, VI Gol`danskii became a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in the department of Chemistry (1962), academician in the department of General and Technical Chemistry (1981), head of the department and then director of the Institute of Chemical Physics Academy of Sciences of the USSR, chairman of the Scientific Council of the USSR Academy of Sciences in chemistry high energy and the Commission of the Academy of Sciences for the synchrotron radiation.

Scientific discoveries VI Gol`danskii highly appreciated at home and abroad. He was awarded the Lenin and State Prizes, awarded a gold medal Mendeleev for a series of studies and the use of new phenomena in low temperature chemistry (1975), gold medal Semenov of a set of works on chemical physics including chemical kinetics (1996), many scientific awards. He was elected a foreign member of the twelve foreign academies of science, including the US, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Finland and OE

With the advent of perestroika and glasnost VI Gol`danskii plunged into big-time politics. During 44 months - until the collapse of the Soviet Union - he was deputy of the USSR, then he defended the young shoots of democracy, appeared on television and in various media, campaigning for freedom, for a nuclear-free world, against militarism. Since 1987, VI Gol`danskii - chairman of the Pugwash Committee of the USSR, member of the international executive committee and the board of the Pugwash movement.

VI Gol`danskii possessed extraordinary literary talents. He wrote brilliant and scholarly articles and monographs, and prose, and poetry, and humorous pieces, and "cruise" words and phrases. For a long time it was published on the 16th page of the "Literary newspaper", he was deputy chairman of the All-Union Society "Knowledge".

IN AND. Gol`danskii died on 14 January 2001 in Moscow.