Date of Birth: 04/10/1916
Place of birth: Moscow
BREATH other worlds. The new Nobel laureate - for readers "of PRAVDA.Ru"
Is it difficult to become an academician? Talk to any scientist who have achieved or have received this title, and he always smiled and said: "Not really!" A Ginzburg sure to add, say, "more lazy, and then there will be time to think."
As is known, physicists like to joke in the first place itself.
And what they do not like? Perhaps the only thing I know - to communicate with journalists. Because we will not write chto-nibud incorrectly display it a thought or an idea, and "we understand very little in terms of elementary particles and supernova" ... The last statement, of course, is absolutely true, and the only thing that, perhaps, save us - is that physicists themselves often wrong (even quite superficially acquainted with the history of physics!). However, these things related to the approval Academician Ginzburg has because decades pass, but his theories and hypotheses do not sink into oblivion, and becomes relevant. Why is this happening? Yes, everything is easily explained: Vitaly Ginzburg - one of the greatest physicists of the XX century, "a classic of science", although such determination is not accepted to say in life. And if they are true? Why wait?
Ginzburg has always been a hard worker physics. He did not know any weekend or holidays. It seemed that his mind is not able to rest. However, that is why he quickly became a physicist with a capital letter. Remember from La Rochefoucauld: "Our minds, in their laziness and inertia, usually busy with the fact that it is easy and pleasant; this habit limits our cognition, and no one has bothered to enrich and expand your mind to the limits of the possible."
With regard to the Ginzburg great Frenchman made a mistake: just mind physics not only reached the limits of the possible, but also rushed farther - into the depths of the universe, to unknown worlds, to the star system, the existence of which our ancestors had no idea.
However, Ginzburg was lucky. He was born when the great physicist was just beginning, youth and the youth fell to its flourishing and maturity marked the depths of knowledge. Vitaly Ginzburg graduated from Moscow University in 1938, and already in 1940 he worked in the Physical Institute of the prestigious Academy of Sciences, where then it could meet many decades. However, he was also a professor at the University of Gorky, but it was just after the war. In its midst, many physicists have been "transferred" to and then the emergence of super-secret nuclear center near the town of Gorky strengthened the bond that formed between FIAN and the city on the Volga.
And generally Ginzburg as a theorist was omnipresent!
Unfortunately, time has not preserved for us the specific name of a work, in which the scientist involved.
- We did not think about it, - complains Academician Yuly Khariton, who led the project to develop nuclear weapons. - Neither in the documents nor in the memory has been preserved that, in my opinion, it would be necessary today: no anonymity and authorship of a theoretical research and experiment. And especially - the ideas ... But secrecy was too rigid, and because people did not know what their colleagues in the neighboring department, sometimes - at the table. And now it is impossible to determine exactly what the idea belonged to a particular person. Most often, she was born in the collective discussion.
Ginzburg participated in the creation of nuclear weapons. No, just in Arzamas-16, it did not work. However, from a purely scientific closed center left "orders" to the different physics and different laboratories. Of course, on the nature of the research could only guess, not more ... to write reports, experiments were carried out, sometimes the ideas discussed in the "narrow" range, and on the participation of the physics ended. Sometimes you have to "reward", and even then it was clear that your job is very useful.
In the encyclopedia says: "In 1950-1951 he worked on the problems of thermonuclear reactions." Just one line, but because of her one of the most difficult chapters in the history of physics, in the battle of ideas. Already created and tested an atomic bomb. Its power is checked not only at the sites, but also in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However, theorists argue that perhaps superweapon, many times exceeding the atomic. We are talking about a hydrogen bomb. And it begins an unspoken competition between Livermore and Arzamas. There, across the ocean, the program is headed by Edward Teller, we - Andrei Sakharov. Each of them - hundreds of physicists, theorists and experimentalists. Teller initially mistaken, his path leads to a dead end. Sakharov and his colleagues ahead of the Americans. The first explosion of a thermonuclear device ... The Americans have it - a three-story building, we have a "normal" weapons ... Then the new ideas and new challenges. Even proud Teller admits that Sakharov won the competition.
In 1953, Vitaly Ginzburg received the State Prize. Everyone understands that it is the assessment of its contribution to the creation of thermonuclear weapons.
After 13 years of Academician Ginzburg became a laureate of the Lenin Prize. And it is - evaluation of his work in a completely different area: the prize for the knowledge and understanding of the processes taking place in the depths of the universe.
For the scientist, the main thing - individuality. Vitaly Ginzburg in his "track record" has the right to transfer, and works on the theory of wave propagation in the ionosphere, radio astronomy, for the origin of cosmic rays on the theory of superconductivity, optics, radiation, astrophysics and so on. It is interesting that in his youth he worked with Landau, creating the theory of superconductivity, and maturity - desperately argued with Zeldovich, who tried to justify the theory of the origin of the universe. In general, Vitaly Ginzburg - physics of the universe, but because our conversation with him, of course, was about the values ??which have space exploration to "his area of ??science." I deliberately narrowed the subject of our conversation, so I thought that it was a breakthrough in space physics of the universe made more understandable and accessible.
- Is not it? - I asked the academician.
- The myth that interplanetary space - the void, dispelled long ago. Now, no one doubts that all celestial bodies are moving in interplanetary or interstellar plasma whose properties and try to set scientists today. The task responsible and difficult, but it is urgent, as people break the shackles of Earth`s gravity and become a resident of the Solar System.
- Unfortunately, the very first knowledge disappoint. Or I`m wrong?
- No icons have knowledge of the "minus" or "plus". It is or it is not. It is better if it is "there" ... As you know, our Earth is protected by heavy armor of magnetic fields, which rejects the flux of cosmic rays away from the earth, and made it through the magnetic field, the particles collide with air molecules and are killed at high altitude. However, on the surface of the Earth, we still feel the "breath" of the envoys of other worlds. It flows so-called secondary particles which are formed when cosmic rays collide with the nuclei of the atoms of atmospheric gases. But scientists are interested in the primary particles, and therefore raised to the sky balloons, go to the mountains physicists expedition geophysical rocket start. With artificial satellites flying capabilities detailed study of cosmic rays infinitely expanded. Poyavilasvozmozhnost explore the "pure" cosmic rays.
- It is important to understand the world in which the earth lives?
- Basic study of cosmic rays associated with elementary particles and their interactions at high energies. Nature helpfully provided us with the perfect laboratory, the creation of which on Earth is impossible. Yes, we have built and powerful boosters. Requires huge material costs for their construction, a lot of engineering inventions, large labor costs of thousands of people, but nevertheless recreate those "boosters", which has a nature, it is simply impossible! Another thing - how to get into this natural laboratory and lead effectively in her study ... But this task has been the near future, and it is completely solved.
- And why cosmic rays?
- It is composed of almost all chemical elements, atomic weight of less than iron. The relative number of elements in cosmic rays is very very different from their prevalence in the universe. As is known, the most widespread is hydrogen. Its 90%. In second place helium - 9%. All other elements account for only about one percent of the substance. But cosmic rays contain nuclei of heavy elements is many times more than they should have been, based on the distribution of these substances in the universe. Therefore, we can conclude that the sources of cosmic rays are accelerated and largely generated by heavy nuclei group of iron and chromium ... What direction prefer to cosmic rays during their travels across the expanses of the galaxy? It turns out that our planet is being attacked by cosmic rays uniformly, that is, the radiation flux in different directions the same. So, the cosmic rays in the galaxy is isotropic. From this we can conclude that in our galaxy there are numerous sources of cosmic rays. In addition, most researchers believe that cosmic rays are formed mostly within our own galaxy, and do not come into it from the outside.
But in order to maintain a constant level of cosmic radiation in the galaxy, cosmic rays, the total energy which is huge, must be continuously generated. Their energy is so great that it is difficult to associate with the birth of their education in the stars. For example, if two hundred billion stars in our Galaxy emit cosmic rays as well as their generates our sun, the total power of the "generator" would be ten million times lower than necessary. However, in the galaxy there are magnetic stars, that can "work for the production of" cosmic rays are millions of times better than the sun, but in this case, the total capacity will amount to only one percent of the necessary.
Shklovskii, I and several other astronomers and physicists of the view that the source of cosmic rays - supernovas and probably new stars. Their appearance was observed, Chinese, Japanese, Byzantine and other ancient astronomers. It is now firmly established that about once every 50-100 years erupts supernova - a star is particularly high brightness. Unfortunately, we can not observe all outbreaks occurring in our galaxy, as most of them are obscured by interstellar matter have opaque disk of the Galaxy.
So I broke a supernova. However, it is not for long pleases astronomers - its "Optical life" is short. The light gradually weakens, and in a few months, it does not stand out in the starry sky. Astronomers can only watch the huge mass of the gas, which scatter from the blast site in different directions. The resulting gas can be "seen `` in optical devices and particularly in radio telescopes.
The causes and mechanisms of formation supernovae is still a mystery to scientists. We can only guess what is happening in the depths of the galaxy. There is, for example, the hypothesis that the normal evolution of a star as a result almost all protons and electrons to form neutrons very quickly. The star in this rapidly decreases in size. There is an explosion, and the material of the outer shells scattered in space. Radio astronomical observations provide direct evidence of the huge amount of cosmic rays in the shells of gas formed as a result of the explosion of supernovae. It has been suggested that the particle acceleration occurs directly in the gas envelope of the star under the action of shock waves.
However, with such a hypothesis is difficult to accept because, probably, the particles can not acquire this process the energy is communicated to cosmic rays. It will be in the tens or even hundreds of times smaller. Obviously, the shock waves are only thrown into space from the star bowels vast masses of the particles and give them some initial speed, relatively small. Further, the particles are accelerated already under the influence of alternating magnetic fields, that is, the process in a way similar to the acceleration of particles in ordinary terrestrial nuclear machines. In other words, our galaxy - a gigantic natural accelerator, whose power is so great that it is difficult to us to imagine.
- It is a spectacular sight, is not it? However, it can not be seen, only the imagination of physics it is capable of?
- Of course. In all aspects of travel through the galactic cosmic rays. They live hundreds of millions and billions of years, and during that time cover great distances. Cosmic rays do not leave our Galaxy. If photons or neutrons are only pervade the Galaxy and lost somewhere in the universe, the cosmic rays are true to our stellar world, and during his long life, they have time to visit many parts of our galaxy. Studying them - it means to constantly monitor the pulse of our solar system.
... To hear thoughts Academician Ginzburg - a pleasure! I was lucky enough to visit his workshops, to meet him at the institute and at home, to hear his lectures. Interestingly, of the most difficult problems in physics, he was able to tell a fun and affordable. And because sometimes his lectures turned into a kind of journey through the distant corners of the universe, giving the impression that you are on board the ship kakogo-to fiction, for which there is neither distance nor time.
At the very beginning of the space age Ginzburg often wondered about the fate of astronautics. He hoped that the satellite onboard interplanetary spacecraft will be a wide variety of devices that will investigate cosmic rays and the interplanetary field. Unfortunately, such experiments have been only sporadic. Although forty years of its existence, astronautics has made an enormous contribution to the development of astrophysics, but nevertheless it was possible to do much more. And Academician Ginzburg, and his many colleagues in the academy about this regret. However, theorists do not particularly need the experiments. Of course, well, when theoretical calculations are confirmed in some actual experiments, but the physics is much more important that his colleagues will tell whether he was able to convince them of his calculations. Theorist - a fantasy, and the more unusual it is, the more real. Academician Ginzburg convinced that very often those of long life that has been, is and will be science for him.