Date of Birth: 05/04/1622
Place of birth: Florence
Viviani was born and raised in Florence, he studied at the Jesuit school. Acquainted with Torricelli, a pupil of Galileo, became together with him to carry out physical experiments, and later became a disciple of Galileo and (1639), which is under the supervision of the Inquisition lived in Arcetri, near Florence. Viviani became an invaluable assistant to the blind scientist.
3 years later (1642), Galileo died, and in 1647 Torricelli died. Viviani continued their research, while preparing for publication a collection of Galileo`s works with a biographical sketch (1655-1656). Tuscan Duke Ferdinand II de `Medici gave him his protection, and a place of honor at the Academy (Accademia del Cimento, ie "Academy experience"), specially created for research prirodyReputatsiya Viviani as a worthy Galileo`s successor soon firmly established and he received a number of invitations from monarchs, including including by Louis XIV and the Polish King John II Casimir. Worried Duke Viviani appointed court astronomer with a high salary (1666).
In 1666 Viviani was elected a foreign member of the newly founded French Academy of Sciences. He also became a member of the Royal Society of London (1696).
1687: Viviani published a book on mechanics, Discorso intorno al difendersi da` riempimenti e dalle corrosione de` fiumi. Prepare treatise on the strength of materials, but did not have time to finish it. The book has been edited and published by Luigi Guido Grandi.
In his will Viviani left part of the funds for Galileo`s funeral, according to his will, in the cathedral of Santa Croce, and the construction of the monument there to Galilee. This will was executed in 1737, when the Roman Church finally allowed Galileo reburied, the grave and now teacher and pupil are located nearby.
In honor of Viviani named a crater on the Moon. His name also is studied them curve formed by the intersection of a sphere with a circular cylinder half the radius, whose lateral surface comprises a center of the sphere.
The scientific activity
In 1644 Viviani and Torricelli put classic experience in atmospheric pressure measurement. A glass tube with mercury overturned in a vessel filled with mercury, too. The column of mercury in the tube is stopped at a height (in modern terms) 760 mm.1660 year Viviani, together with Borelli, we had a fairly accurate measurement of the speed of sound and gained a value corresponding to approximately 350 m / sec. Earlier measurements made Gassendi evaluated sound velocity of 478 m / sec (current estimate: 331.3 m / sec at 0