Date of Birth: 01/13/1864
Place of birth: Gaffken
He was not attentive pupil, preferring instead to prepare homework to wander through the fields, and poorly studied, especially in mathematics. The parents took him from school in 1879 and brought home by educating the farming business, and his schoolwork, he continued with a private teacher. Then, in the autumn of 1880 Vladimir enrolled in school in Konigsberg, and finished it in the early spring of 1882 Later that spring, encouraged by his mother, he entered the University of Gottingen. Dissatisfied with math courses and who did not like the life of the student corporations, he left Gottingen, having studied there for one semester, and traveled to the Rhine riparian areas of Germany. He returned home, intending to become a farmer, but he realized that this job is not for him, resumed classes in mathematics and physics at the University of Berlin in the autumn of 1882
After two semesters of classroom and three years of laboratory work under the direction of Hermann von Helmholtz, the eminent physicist, mathematician and physiologist, also spent one summer at the University of Heidelberg, W. received his doctorate in 1886. His thesis was on the light diffraction on a sharp metal edge and the impact on the absorption of the metal produced in color. Diffraction - a phenomenon caused by the wave nature of light. When placed over the metal barrier screen from the side opposite the light source, when suitable conditions occur thereon a diffraction pattern.
This pattern consists of alternating bright and dark bands extending below the barrier geometric shadow, as if the light barrier skirting the edge. Since the arrangement of bright and dark bands due to the wavelength (corresponding to a specific color) and the diffraction pattern is different for different wavelengths, from the diffraction light can be separated, containing a mixture of colors on the painted strip. V. found that after diffraction light becomes polarized and that the material of which the edge effect on color. He believed that the color effect can not be explained by existing theories, because they do not take into account the vibrations of the molecules of the diffraction plate.
In the summer of 1886 V. returned home to help his parents on the farm, where a fire broke out, damaging several buildings. He remained there for the next four years, continuing self-study theoretical physics. Its future is defined, when the drought in 1890 forced his parents to sell the land. B. became an assistant to Helmholtz in the new State Physical-Technical Institute in Charlottenburg (now part of Berlin), where he focused on solving problems posed by industrial firms.
For 30-year period B. performed a wide range of scientific research in various academic institutions. In 1892 he became a lecturer at Berlin University and in 1896 was appointed professor of physics at the Technical University in Aachen, succeeding Philipp von Lenard. In 1899 he was a professor of physics at the University of Hesse, and then, in 1900, became the successor of Wilhelm Roentgen in the post of Professor of Physics, University of Wurzburg.
B. Research ryadvoprosov cover, including, in particular, hydrodynamics, especially the behavior of sea waves and cyclones. Even in the State Physical-Technical Institute, he began his fruitful research on thermal radiation, ie, phone radiation caused by heating. At different temperatures, the body absorb, reflect or transmit incident light to them. But regardless of this, they emit energy, since they have a certain temperature. Good example is the familiar light bulb filament.
In 1860-ies. Gustav Kirchhoff, a theoretical study of the relationship between radiation and absorption of energy, introduced the notion of a black body which absorbs all radiation incident on it, not reflecting anything. Real body, black as coal - this superb, although not absolutely perfect absorber of radiation - still reflect a small fraction of the light falling on it. It appears black because it reflects very little light. A black body - this perfect absorber and Kirchhoff showed that it, in addition, the emitter and the best possible and can therefore serve as a reference for finding the relationship between radiation intensity and body temperature - regardless of the material from which is made a particular transmitter.
Although normal body can not be perfectly black body Kirchhoff showed theoretically substantiated that the space is completely surrounded by walls at uniform temperature (eg, furnace), it has the necessary properties blackbody - irrespective of the wall material. You can see this if you try to understand what will happen when we will take a small hole in one wall. The radiation released to the hole to reach the opposite wall and partly absorbed and partly reflected. It is unlikely that the reflected portion got back into our little hole. Instead, it will perform a series of reflections and absorptions until until completely absorbed (slightly while heating wall), and never come out. In other words, our piece of the space bounded by the walls, completely absorb the light hit him, as it should be absolutely black body. Kirchhoff showed that the radiation within a cavity composed of intersecting rays which are reflected from the walls, has a distribution of wavelengths and intensities that depend only on temperature, but not from the wall material.
In 1893, B. studied the blackbody radiation, using what he called "mind" (as opposed to laboratory) experiment, relying on the laws of thermodynamics. Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann thermodynamics used in a similar way to justify a mathematical formula, empirically found his compatriot Josef Stefan. Stephen noticed that the total energy radiated by a black body every second, and includes all wavelengths is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature (-273