Born in Novorzhevsky have. Pskov Province., In the family priest. Initial education in the seminary. He graduated from the Moscow Theological Academy and then (1852). He received a scholarship of Metropolitan. Plato, which gave the right to add to his name his name. Submitted bachelor of biblical stories and Greek (1852-54). From 1854 occupies the chair of philosophy; 1857 - Professor of the Academy; taught the history of philosophy, metaphysics and logic (up to 1891). In 1861-1862 he conducted classes on metaphysics and logic with the heir to the throne. In a. 80 on behalf of the Synod was the new program in Philosophy Seminar and tutorials themselves in relation to these programs. Kudryavtsev called his teaching system of transcendental monism. He believed that philosophy is the science of the spirit, the latter based on existing and target. It should serve as a unifying bond of all sciences and specify each its place in the whole body of science. At the same time it must put the soul and life to the study of facts that illuminate them the ideal light. The beginning of philosophical knowledge, by Kudryavtsev, we must admit the idea of ??an absolutely perfect Being, a fundamental philosophical truth - the truth of God`s existence. Kudryavtsev has built a system of Christian philosophy, but it has built in the spirit of modern criticism and the least relied on the voice of the "direct feeling" it is in philosophy. "Speak the truth, - he wrote - is not only a recognition of its direct or belief in it, but a clear, rational consciousness of why we are this or accept the truth." Because he warns against excessive credulity and from excessive confidence. "The beginning of philosophy, - he wrote in an article on" the method of philosophy "- is not somewhere outside, and in the same capacity, which is its source - in mind: the study of the mind is the first and essential of its business. From such studies it depends very fate of philosophy. "
Epistemology. "Positive, synthetic construction of the philosophical outlook - Kudryavtsev wrote - must be preceded by a philosophical theory of knowledge." His epistemological analyzes Kudryavtsev always tons of headlines .: "Metaphysical analysis of empirical knowledge", too -. "Rational cognition", too - a "perfect knowledge". According to explanations Kudryavtseva, "metaphysical analysis", eg., Empirical knowledge the question of the relation of our sense-perceptions to the actual existence. Kudryavtseva interested primarily a question of the power of knowledge, the possibility for our cognitive abilities to penetrate into the "real existence." This does not mean that he is not interested immanent critique of cognitive processes, but its epistemological analysis still focused primarily on finding out how we can know real existence. Analyzing the position of radical skepticism, Kudryavtsev establishes near certainty knowing "I" the same certainty of "being I", which is different from subjective states. "Our agreement, - he writes - with the same necessity and certainty with which asserts the existence of his own self and its states, claims and being not me or things are beyond me." But next to these two kinds of life must recognize, according to Kudryavtsev, and the third - the absolute being. The development of this significant for Kudryavtseva position (at the very beginning of his research!) Is very important and it is being t. .: About primarily is to establish the indispensability of (even for the skeptic) the idea of ??"true knowledge". Any rejection of the possibility of knowledge includes the idea of ??"true" knowledge (which is recognized as a skeptic unenforceable, but that, as an idea, and he will, if he says about it). But just as our mind and presented the idea of ??the "true" existence - the indispensability of this idea can be seen from the fact that we are doubting the reality of being kakoy-libo hand or making a judgment about the imperfections or deficiencies in being, obviously, we have at the same time in front of the idea "true" free from limitations of life. These two ideas (true knowledge and true being) easy to communicate to one ( "true" knowledge can refer only to the "true" existence), "the idea of ??the absolute, perfect being, which is turned on and the time of absolute knowledge, is the third, the basic beginning of our knowledge "(next to the knowledge of the reality of knowing the" I "and of being out of the" I ").
According to the basic question of the sources of knowledge Kudryavtsev assigns empirical material the more the case that, as we shall see, it is with great strength and perseverance develops the principles of epistemological realism. But with no less force Kudryavtsev speaks about the lack of empirical material in explaining cognition. "We must recognize the wrong formula, - he says - that all that we know, we know through the senses." "We have to admit - he writes elsewhere - our perceptual knowledge limited - in the sense that our sense is available, not all that there is in the material world" ... "everything leads to the idea that our direct perceptual knowledge (gradually ) - rather reduced in the historical development than expanding. " Sense knowledge is generally "rough stuff" that requires processing intelligence that leads Kudryavtseva to the formula: "the real source of our knowledge of the external world, as the knowledge is in the mind."
Turning to the analysis of rational elements of knowledge, Kudryavtsev primarily detail shows that the formulation of the concepts can not be connected with the sphere of images (ideas), "we must admit in my heart a special combining different from the perceptions and images of power" - the connection of images and concepts are not genetic about: thinking through concepts is "an independent reality." "The concepts are drawn up our mind on the basis of experience, but do not come from one experiment only."
Ontology. Kudryavtsev strongly dissociate himself from the naive realism, but with no less energy and idealism he criticizes (in its various forms) - especially a lot of attention he devotes to the criticism of transcendental idealism, particularly Hegel. The criticism of absolute idealism in Kudryavtseva witty remarks against the "transcendental deduction" not-self. "Consistent implementation of idealism - Kudryavtsev notes - entangled in hopeless contradictions - with the known world disappears and the knowing subject itself - our self." "For idealism in general inexplicably particularly sensual being - this being can be explained only on the assumption of real existence outside of us and independently of us sense objects."
Rejection of idealism and even insisted repeatedly in different places growing Kudryavtsev, t. To. Here they laid the foundations of the general epistemological realism. Summing up all these indications of their lack of independence of idealism in its various forms, such Kudryavtsev ends their formula: "if all our knowledge applies only to phenomena, it does not deserve the name of knowledge."
Kudryavtsev very carefully examines the principles of materialism - and here his criticism, very thorough and independent, aims to recognizing the reality of matter, bring more precision to the study of material existence. First Kudryavtsev very convincing on the analysis of the concept of power and the notion of the law, indicates that "in the very area of ??the material being is something which can not be attributed to the signs of materiality.
As for idealism, then, recognizing his "advantage over materialism" Kudryavtsev strongly opposes the denial of sensual reality. Kudryavtsev even ready to admit that "the material world is not so heterogeneous with our spirit as it seems to us that it is even possible that" between the spiritual world and the material has a stronger internal communication. " The criticism of idealism is very strong and the starting point here is "inexplicable for the submission of concrete idealism of sense of being"; materialism and idealism are both to blame, according to Kudryavtsev, that "one and the other specifically deny our spiritual being I" (albeit for different reasons).
But a sharp dualism between spirit and matter, in their mutual irreducibility to one another, have yet to be reconciled, "it is impossible to prevent - says Kudryavtsev - that of being in the world was based on two definitely different, independent of each other, opposite the beginning." Failure existed until now attempts to understand the unity of being determined by Kudryavtsev, the fact that "the beginning of uniting both sides of life, the mind was looking at the same world existence." It is necessary to go beyond the world and "to seek the unity of the world outside the world -.. Ie, in being distinct from the world ... With the recognition of a non-world of the highest Being, we, instead of substance monism, which is the basis of one-sided materialism and idealism views, get monism transcendent, unifying where dominates the area being conditioned. " For all the philosophical significance of this decision, the question of being difficult, however, to take the very name of the system proposed by Kudryavtsev. After all, the concept of "transcendence" has a specific meaning and can not be divorced from that epistemological concept that is embodied in that term. To avoid this ambiguity, yet with sufficient clarity to express the basic idea Kudryavtseva, we will define it as a system supranaturalny monism. This term expresses the basic idea rather Kudryavtsev eva that the beginning of the world unity lies outside the world ...
The concept of absolute being, as the supreme concept Kudryavtseva system, it is necessary for it philosophically. The world does not possess infinite being; "The deepest foundation of what space and time we ascribe a sign of infinity, we must look not to what is different, as in belonging to our mind the idea of ??the infinite." This doctrine Kudryavtsev returns to the basic ideas Golubinsky. If philosophy, according to Kudryavtsev, "are not allowed to start directly with the absolute doctrine", the result of their research philosophy comes to the recognition, as a basic concept, the concept of the Absolute Being, standing above the world. "The idea of ??an absolutely perfect being is that the sought fundamental and basic idea of ??our mind, in which the focus and combine all other ideas" - says Kudryavtsev. He gives, that is about the philosophical justification of theism than not becomes, as already mentioned, on the ground of theological rationalism:.. "Natural theology" can never claim absolute validity. But a philosophical system it is important to only one thing: to adopt the notion of unconditional being of the world. However, the concept of the Godhead should not be interpreted as a "regulatory" concept, in the language of Kant: in fact it is unquestionably "constitutive" character. Positive opening of the Divine Revelation is unthinkable.
Cosmology and anthropology Kudryavtseva. Philosopher says a lot in favor of the idea of ??creation, everywhere emphasizing that it is in the concept of creation "is a sufficient guarantee of independence of the world and its laws." This Kudryavtsev admits that this doctrine of the creation of the world is "the only mandatory for a reason." Very clever Kudryavtsev, criticizing the theory of randomness of the world, shows that "the concept of a case does not fit the need for consistent conformity to law and development." By themselves, the laws of nature have no inherent necessity, they might even be called "random" - the establishment as they can be understood only in the interests "of the idea of ??the universe as a unity in diversity - which leads to the idea of ??free, rational reason these laws. " This leads on to the recognition of the necessity (as the only viable) these laws, but not immanent and metaphysical necessity. He criticizes the doctrine that "the idea is that from which the world has been created." "It is necessary to distinguish between: the idea - he writes - as created by God supersensible, the real beginning of a phenomenal existence" of "ideas as divine thoughts about things." According to him, even featuring the ideal side of the world from the ideas of God, we still fall into a number of difficulties in the doctrine of the ideal side of the world. Over Kudryavtsev strongly rejects the doctrine of the soul of the world, probably referring to the construction of Solovyov. "In this current world life not every newly emerging thing created by God himself, - says Kudryavtsev, - that the world is a kind of self-creation ... it is certainly true ... but another thing - the origin of the original terms of the life of nature (matter, force, laws ... ) - there can be no self-creation. Introducing between God and the world of any intermediate entity, we come upon a number of difficult questions, the main of which is: consciously or unconsciously, this substance. " Analyzing this question by stating that "the development of ideas of the world can only be unconscious," Kudryavtsev stresses further that if the `world idea or essence of the unconscious, it can not give freely or that the direction of its development. " And in this case, one of the main reasons for introducing the concept of the World Soul - an explanation of evil in the world - is without permission.
Being a deeply religious man, Kudryavtsev remained free in his mind - and in the construction of the system persistently and firmly proceeded from a critical analysis of knowledge. However, the primacy of epistemology at the system construction must not close our eyes to the fundamental ontologism Kudryavtsev. The idea of ??absolute being for him is the highest and supreme idea that he is only in the order of construction of the system seeks to justify. Essentially, the idea of ??absolute being, revealed to us in the "perfect knowledge" (t. E. In the mystical experience, the usual terminology) is the central idea for Kudryavtseva. By adopting the position of epistemological realism and this philosophically discovering the way to metaphysics, Kudryavtsev builds then his "transcendental" monism, which is philosophically - and I must say, with great confidence - overcoming and sharp dualism in metaphysics, and one-sided form of monism (materialism and spiritualism ).
Prot. In Zenkovsky