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Viktor Grignard

Picture of Viktor Grignard

Date of Birth: 06/05/1871

Age: 64

Place of birth: Cherbourg

Citizenship: France

Background

The following year, after the demobilization he returned to Lyon and exams. At the same time his friend and fellow student at a school in Cluny developed from G. interest in chemistry, and in 1894 he became assistant to the Faculty of Chemistry at the University. Rapidly demonstrate their abilities in this area, H. in 1898 received a master`s degree in physical sciences in the same year he became a senior demonstrator Philippe Antoine Barbier, head of the faculty of the University of Lyon.

Barbier began to explore a method in which metal used to transfer the organic group from one molecule to the other compounds that were obtained by joining the metal to the one or more organic radicals (groups of atoms that remain uncharged when the reactions) were called organometallic compounds. While it was known that the only organometallic compounds which are effectively transferring agents - are organic zinc compound. This process, however, has been time consuming and the results obtained were not stable (reproducible).

In just a few years before several German chemists have replaced zinc, magnesium, but were unstable compounds with low output, most of which were not soluble in inert solvents. Although magnesium from a practical point of view, was not suitable as a carrying agent, Barbier decided to use it, approaching the problem from the other side. Instead of getting organomagnesium compound, as did the German experimenters, it took just two substances and organic reaction conducted in the presence of magnesium, and in this embodiment, the reaction proceeded. Nevertheless, these results were inconsistent, and Barbier threw the problem, though it offered G. as a theme for the dissertation.

G. aware that in the XIX century the English chemist Edward and James Frenkland Uonklin got organozinc compounds during heating of organic compounds with the metal in the presence of anhydrous ether. Knowing that magnesium is more readily reacts than zinc, G. suggested that this kind of reaction of magnesium should engage more actively. This assumption has been proven, and it has used this method to produce various organometallic compounds, some of which were first obtained.

In 1900, he published the results of their research, for which he was awarded a doctoral degree in the following year. Grignard reaction - the pinnacle of his academic career, it is used in a variety of experiments in organic chemistry. Using reaction named after him, other researchers have effectively and easily able to synthesize a wide range of organic compounds.

In 1905 he became a lecturer at the rate of chemistry at the University of Besancon, which is located near Dijon, but the following year he returned to Lyon to the position of research assistant Barbier. In 1908 he was promoted to associate professor. A year later he moved to Nansiysky University, where in 1910 he became a professor of organic chemistry.

In 1912, she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, contribute significantly to the development of organic chemistry in recent years." He shared the prize with Paul Sabatier. In his speech at the presentation of the winners of a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences X. G. G. Sederbaum thanked for the "expansion of the frontiers of knowledge, the ability to observations of" and "the prospects for the opening of new advances in science."

When in 1914 France entered the war, he was called to the service of a corporal and sent to Normandy. He served for a short time, carrying guard duty, then was recalled for the development of methods for the preparation of explosive toluene. In 1917, during the work on the problem of chemical weapons, he visited America to coordinate the efforts of France and the United States in this regard. During the trip, he gave a few lectures in Mellonovskom Institute (now Carnegie Mellon University) on the relationship of science and industry.

In 1919 he was demobilized from the military service. After working for several months in the University Nansiyskom he succeeded Barbier a professor of chemistry at the University of Lyon, where he remained until the end of his scientific career. In 1921 he became the director of the Lyon School of Chemical Engineering and in 1929 Dean of the Faculty of Science of the school.

In Lyon, in addition to working with organomagnesium compounds, G. examined a wide range of problems, including condensation of aldehydes and ketones, the cracking of hydrocarbons, catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation under reduced pressure. In recent years, administrative duties, they are executed against his will greatly limit its research activities.

In 1919, he married Marie Augustine Bulan, they had a daughter and a son, also became a chemist. Goal-oriented and versatile scholar, G. was also highly valued teacher. After a serious illness, he died on December 13, 1935 in Lyon.

Among the many awards were Mr. Berthelot Medal (1902), the prize Zhekkera (1905), the French Academy of Sciences and the Lavoisier Medal of the French Chemical Society (1912). He was awarded the title of Commander of the Legion of Honor and an honorary degree from the universities of Brussels and Louvain. He was a member of many chemical companies, including Society of England, the USA, Belgium, France, Romania, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden.