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Vespasian

Picture of Vespasian

Date of birth: 17.11.0009

Age: 69

Place of birth: Reate

Citizenship: Italy

Background

In Antioch, Vespasian took over command of the army and took off everywhere auxiliaries. His campaign it started in `67, knowing that he will have a debilitating and dangerous undertaking. The Jews did not dare to fight with the legions in the open field, but took refuge outside the city walls and protected with the utmost tenacity. First of Ptolemais Romans invaded Galilee, and after a severe siege took Iotapatu, large and well-fortified city on the coast. All of its population were put to extermination. Jaffa captured immediately, and Tiberias surrendered without a fight. Tarija residents tried to resist, but their city was taken from the first attack. Vespasian initially promised the prisoners life and liberty, but then changed his mind. All newly arrived Jews, he sent in Tivereadu, about a thousand were executed and before forty thousand sold into slavery (Josephus `The Jewish War`, 3, 2, 7, 9, 10). Located close to Gamal defended with desperate tenacity. After capturing the city in the end, the Romans killed him even infants. After that, the whole Galileo recognized the Roman rule (Josephus `The Jewish War`, 4, 1, 6).

This campaign brought Vespasian great fame and popularity in the army. Indeed, in the first battle he showed exceptional courage, so that in the siege Iotapaty he was injured by a stone in the knee, and his shield pierced several arrows (Suetonius: `Vespasian`; 4). On the march Vespasian usually he walked in front of the troops, was able to choose a place for the camp, day and night, thought about victory over the enemy, and if necessary, Raziel them with a mighty hand, and ate, that it is necessary, clothing and habits is not very different from an ordinary soldier - in short if not greed, it could be considered for the Roman commander ancient times (Tacitus: `History`, 2, 5).

Meanwhile, in 68 it was obtained news of the unrest in Gaul, and that Vindex with the native chieftains fell from Nero. This news prompted Vespasia-to hasten the end of the war, because he already foresaw the future of civil strife and insecurity of the entire state and thought that would be able to liberate Italy from the horrors, if earlier to make peace in the East. In the spring he moved along the Jordan and camped at Jericho. From there he sent detachments in different directions, and subdued all the surrounding towns and villages. He was ready to begin the siege of Jerusalem, when he learned of the suicide of Nero. Then Vespasian changed his tactics and delayed speech, waiting for what turn events will take. Tormented position `of the entire state, waiting for shocks of the Roman power, he already treated less attention to the war with the Jews and terrible concern over the fate of their own country, considered an attack on another ill-timed. Meanwhile, a civil war raged in Italy. Announced by the emperor Galba was openly put to death in the Roman Forum, and instead proclaimed Emperor Otho, who in turn fought against Vitellius, and broken them, he took his own life. In April of `69 became emperor Vitellius.

Vespasian consistently recognized all three of them, and each time a coup led his legions to swear allegiance to the new Princeps. Although he was able to obey as well as command, all the news of the atrocities vitelliantsev in Rome brought him to anger. Vitellius he heartily despised and considered unworthy of the throne. Being imbued with the most painful thoughts, he felt the burden of his position as the conqueror of foreign lands, while his own country perished. But not urged his anger to revenge, the idea of ??his distance from Rome, as well as the power of the German legions, which relied Vitellius, kept him. Meanwhile, the commanders and soldiers in their friendly gatherings openly consulted about the change of government, and was heard more loudly demand to declare the emperor Vespasian (Josephus` The Jewish War ", 4, 8-10).

The first allegiance to Vespasian July 1 69 Alexandria legions. As soon as news of this reached the Jews, the soldiers fled to the tent of Vespasian, joyfully hailed him as emperor. Here on the CX odke he was awarded the title of Caesar, Augustus and all other titles, relying Princeps. Vespasian himself in these new and unusual circumstances remained the same as before - without the slightest importance, without any arrogance. He appealed to the army with a few words, a soldier simple and harsh. In response, on all sides were heard loud cries of jubilation and devotion. joyful rise also swept the legions stationed in Syria. Command them Licinius Mutsian immediately brought them to the oath to Vespasian. Even before the July Eid oath brought the whole Syria. By the uprising joined Soham with his kingdom and under his rule considerable combat forces, as well as Antiochus - the largest of the local subordinate kings of Rome. All the coastal provinces, up to the borders of Asia and Achaia, and all internal, up to Pontus and Armenia, pledging allegiance to the new emperor.

Preparation for war Vespasian began with the fact that recruits scored and called in the army of veterans; the most prosperous city entrusted to host the production of weapons workshops in Antioch began to mint gold and silver coins. These measures are carried out quickly on the ground by special proxies. Vespasian was shown everywhere, all the cheering, praising people who are honest and active, confused and weak taught by example, only occasionally resorting to punishment. He gave the prefects and procurators office and appointed new members of the Senate, the majority of people outstanding, soon occupied the highest position in the state. As for the monetary gift to the soldiers, then at the first gathering was announced that he would be very moderate, and Vespasian promised troops for participation in the civil war is not more than the others to pay them for service in peacetime, he was an implacable opponent senseless generosity the soldiers, the army and so he was always better than the other. By the Parthians in Armenia were sent legates, and measures were taken to ensuring that after the departure of the legions of the civil war boundaries were not exposed. Titus, son of Vespasian, was in Judah, he decided to go to Egypt - it was decided that for the victory over Vitellius only enough of the troops and of the commander as Mutsian and glory surrounding the name of Vespasian (Tacitus: `History`; 2; 79-82).

So Mutsian moved to Italy, and Vespasian sailed to Egypt. He considered of paramount importance to ensure for themselves the province, since vo-pervyh, he thus took control of the supply of bread in Rome, and vo-vtoryh, leaving a place for retreat in case of defeat. Titus was instructed to end the Jewish War (Josephus` The Jewish War "; 4; 10).

Vespasian held in Alexandria, the end of winter and all spring `70 Meanwhile Mutsian took Rome. Vitellius was killed by the Senate, all the provinces and the legions swore allegiance to Vespasian.

Returning in the summer of `70 in Italy, especially Vespasian restored order in the army, because the soldiers reached the perfect promiscuity: one - puffed victory, the other - angry shame. Many soldiers of Vitellius Vespasian dismissed and punished, but also the winners did not take anything more than that is laid, and even legitimate rewards paid to them immediately. He did not miss a single case to restore order. One young man came to thank him for his high purpose, smelling aromas - he contemptuously turned and grimly said, "I`d rather you would smelled garlic!" - And an order appointing selected.

Capital after the last civil war was disfigured by fire and debris. Capitol Hill that housed the ancient temples of Rome burned up. Vespasian allow everyone who wants to borrow and build up empty lots, if it does not do the owners. Having started the restoration of the Capitol, he was the first with his hands began to clear the debris and make them on his back. The upper classes have thinned from endless executions and fell into disrepair from neglect old. To clean them and refill it in 73-74 years., As censor, made a review of the Senate and vsadnichestvu, removed the unfit and included in the lists of the most deserving of the Italians and provincials.

After Titus took Jerusalem and completed the Jewish War, in 71 it was celebrated the triumph. During the reign of Vespasian Achaia, Lycia, Rhodes, Byzantium, most again lost their freedom, and the mountain of Cilicia and com gene, previously under the authority of kings, were turned in the province.

From the very first days in office until his death, Vespasian was available and forgiving. His former low state he has never hidden and often flaunted. To outdoor brilliance he never sought, and even on the day of triumph, exhausted slow and tedious march, could not resist, not to say:

"Serves me right, the old man like a fool wanted to triumph, like my ancestors deserved it or myself I could about him dreaming!" Tribunician power and the name of the father of the fatherland, he took only many years later, although the consul during his reign was eight times and censor - one. He was the first of the princeps who took guard at the door of his palace, and searched his greeting in the morning he stopped even during the civil war. While in office, he always got up early, before it was light, and read letters and reports from all the officials, and then let in friends and salutations, and he at that time clothed and shod. Having dealt with current affairs, he made a walk and resting with some of the concubines: after the death of his Tsenidy were many. From the bedroom, he went to the bath, and then to the table: at the time, said he was just softer and kinder, and home tried to use it, if you have any requests. At dinner, as always and everywhere, he was good-natured and often joked he was a big joker, but too inclined to buffoonery and vulgarity, even reaching the obscenity. Nevertheless, some of his jokes were very witty. They say that a woman swore that she was dying of love for him, and made his attention: he spent the night with her and gave her a 400 000 sesterces and asked the manager, according to which Article bring the money, said: "For extraordinary love of Vespasian ".

Liberty friends barbs solicitor obstinacy philosophers little disturbed. Resentment and hostility he never remembered not avenge them. Never suspicion or fear of not pushing him to violence. Never turned out that the execution of an innocent - except that in his absence, without his knowledge or against his will. No death was not pleased, and even on a well-deserved execution happened to him to complain and cry. The one thing it criticized rightly, that the love of money. Moreover, he sought back taxes forgiven Galba, imposed heavy new taxes, increased and sometimes even doubled the tribute from the provinces - it is openly engaged in such cases, which would be a shame, and a private person. He bought things only to later sell them at a profit; He did not hesitate to sell positions to applicants and justify the defendants, innocent and guilty indiscriminately. Even the outhouse he taxed, and when Titus reproached his father for it, took the coin from the first profit, raised it to his nose and asked her if she stinks. "No," - said Titus. "But this money from ms> chi", - said Vespasian. However, many people think that is greedy, he was not by nature, but because of the extreme poverty of the state and the imperial treasury: in this he admitted that at the beginning of the Board said that he needed forty billion sesterces to the state was on its feet ( Suetonius: `Vespasian`; 8-9, 12-16, 21-24). In fact, under Vespasian in Rome was begun and completed the restoration of Capito-JLP, Temple of Peace, Claudia sites, forums and many other; It was started the construction of the Colosseum. Across Italy has been updated city, strongly fortified road, and on the Flaminia for a less steep mountain pass razed. All this was accomplished in a short time and without burdening the farmers, which proves his wisdom rather than greed (Victor: "O Caesar `; 9).

He died as simply and quietly as he lived. In the ninth consulship he was in Campania, I felt the slight attacks of fever. He went to reatins-ktse estates, where usually spend the summer. There malaise intensified. Nevertheless, he continued, as always, to engage in public affairs and, lying in bed, even received ambassadors. When he began to deny the stomach, Vespasian felt the approach of death, and joked: "Alas, it seems I`m becoming a god." He tried to get up, saying that the emperor ought to die standing, and died at the hands of his supporters (Suetonius: `Vespasian`; 25).

All the kings of the world. Ancient Greece. Ancient Rome. Byzantium. Konstantin Ryzhov. Moscow, 2001 g.

Vespasian. Titus Flavius ??Vespasian was born on November 17 September, in the small village of Falakriny about Reate (modern. Rieti) near Rome. He was a man of very humble origins: his ancestors were neither nobility nor wealth nor done anything outstanding.

Vespasian gave many years of military activity; He served in the Roman army in Thrace (modern territory. Bulgaria), he ruled Crete and Cyrene, commanded a legion in Germany. He particularly distinguished himself in Britain, where he participated in thirty battles, captured two strong nation, and more than twenty villages. It is in the UK, according to Tacitus (Arp. 13), "the all-powerful rock was first seen Vespasian." For the victory in Britain he was awarded in Rome triumph and became consul in `51

Success on the field of military and government activities Vespasian primarily owes its energetic nature, natural sober mind, diligence and care; These qualities, combined with a modest lifestyle allowed him relatively safely through the difficult and dangerous times frenzied reign of Caligula, Claudius and spineless extravagant Nero.

To get a position in Germany and Britain, Vespasian had recourse to the patronage of Narcissus, one of the three most powerful freedmen who run the affairs of the Roman state when limp Claudia. But Narcissus was an enemy of Agrippina the Younger, mother of Nero harsh, Agrippina and anger threatened to appeal also against Vespasian, who, however, as a man of sense and cautious, just managed to retire and disappear from the eyes of a formidable empress.

After Nero in the end to be finished with his obstinate mother, Vespasian was able to return to the state activity and was in control of the province of Africa. In this role, he is not rich, they returned to Rome, laid the sibling their possessions, and he began to sell mules, although the ancient Roman laws forbade senators to engage in trade, trade the mules was considered particularly unenviable occupation; for this rumor gave him a scornful nickname of "Mutants".

Vespasian was among those who accompanied Nero in his "on tour" to Greece in 66, and incurred his displeasure, as several times or left the theater when Nero sang before an audience, or, even worse , I fell asleep.

In the life of Vespasian it took a sharp turn when suddenly in February `67 Nero appointed him commander in chief in the war against the Jews.

Romans first invaded Judea in 63 BC, in 6 AD she was turned into a Roman province. Since `41 the reign of Emperor Claudius Judah for some time been translated into the kingdom of the position-dependent Rome; king of Judah, became friendly tuned to the Romans, Herod Agrippa, but after his death in 44, Judah was again turned into a Roman province, the procurator-driven. In 66 Jerusalem residents killed the Roman garrison, and the revolt spread throughout Judea. Rome threw against the rebellious troops from Syria, but they were defeated. Then Nero was forced to recall the military talents of Vespasian and forgive him for his irreverent attitude to singing, especially because he was, according to Suetonius (Vesp.. 5), "a man of zeal and tested not in the least dangerous kind of modesty and the name" .

In two years, Vespasian`s troops managed to quell the uprising. It was the first general merit. According to Tacitus, "Vsspasian usually he walked at the head of the troops, was able to choose a place for the camp, day and night, thought about victory over the enemy, and if necessary, Raziel them with a mighty hand, and ate, that it is necessary, clothing and habits is not very different from the ordinary warrior "(Tats. East. II, 5).

All Judah was brought back under the authority of the Roman arms, but Jerusalem was not taken. Vespasian, however, deliberately not in a hurry to go to Jerusalem, although his legions of fiercely eager to fight for the Jewish capital, which in the meantime tore infighting. His slowness Vsspasian explained to his soldiers:

"The best military leader than I am, is a God who wants to give the Jews in Roman hands without any tension from our side forces and the army to give our victory, not associated with risk. While the enemies with his own hands destroy themselves while they tormented the worst evils - civil war - we should remain quiet spectators of the horror and not get involved in the fight against people who seek death and rage furiously against each other ... Composure and deliberation bring as much fame as it exploits in battle, when they lead to victory. In the meantime, the enemy exhausts itself, my army will rest from their labors of war and gain strength ... So, for the safety of most reasonable people left to themselves, devouring one another "(Ios. Fl., IV 4, 6, 2) .

In fact, Vespasian kept from going to Jerusalem, a fear, as if not feud broke out in Rome. He was the only one of the Roman generals, who was able to properly assess the situation, managed for a long time to hold on to the side, without getting involved openly in the struggle for power, which was bound to break out in Rome as a result of reckless reign of Nero, the more that Nero was the last member of the family Julio-Claudian, the power of which lasted about a century of Rome.

Vsspasian, slowly, prepared the attack on Jerusalem, but immediately end the war as soon as received the news that Nero deposed and committed suicide in June `68

The Roman state was in the grip of its own troops.

Nero committed suicide when the legions stationed in Spain and Gaul, proclaimed emperor (or rather - Princeps, the head of state) Galba.

Vespasian acknowledged Galba and sent him his son Titus. However, Vespasian, apparently knew that Galba`s little chance to retain power, and Titus did not rush to the new emperor.

At the beginning of January 69 legions stationed in Germany, proclaimed emperor Vitellius, and on January 15th in Rome, Galba was killed.

After receiving the news of this, Titus returned to Vsspasianu.

But in Rome on the day of the murder of Galba Praetorian Guard declared the emperor - Otho, which recognized the legions stationed on the Danube. Vespasian in Judaea led his legions to swear Otho

Vsspasian, who commanded three legions, and Mutsian governor of Syria, was in possession of four legions, remained calm. "The generals saw the rebellious mood warriors, but so far preferred to wait and see how the other will be at war. Winners and losers in the civil war, they reasoned, never reconciled for a long time. Guessing is now, who will be able to gain the upper hand - Otho or Vitslliyu, does not make sense: having achieved victory, even the outstanding military leaders begin to behave unexpectedly, and only these two, lazy, lecherous, always with all quarreling, all the same die both - one because that lost the war, the other - because it won. Therefore Vsspasian and Mutsian decided that armed action is necessary, but that it should be postponed until a more appropriate occasion. Rest for various reasons, have long held the same opinion - the best kept love of country, many hope pushed plunder, others hoped to improve their financial affairs. Anyway, good people and bad, all for different reasons, but with equal fervor, were eager to war "(Tats. East. II of, 7).

In northern Italy during Bedriake (near Cremona) Otho Vitellius troops attacked the troops, but were broken and moved to the side of the latter. Otho committed suicide, and the Roman Senate declared emperor Vitellius

Cautious Vespasian led his troops to swear Vitellius.

Carefully and slowly, Vespasian came to power, being able to put the time into his service. Two unreasonable opponents have been killed, there was one Vitellius.

Tacitus describes these events:

"Now we can hardly imagine what a proud Vitellius and carelessness which they took possession when arriving from Syria and Judea messengers reported that the Eastern Army recognized his authority. Until then the people on Vespasian looked upon as a possible candidate in printsepe-sy (emperors), and rumors about his intentions, though vague, though it is not known whom to blossom, not just Vitellius led to the excitement and terror. Now both he and his army, no longer fearing rivals, gave themselves like barbarians, cruelty, immorality and looting. Vespasian yet again and again weighed, how much he is willing to (sectarian) war, how strong his army counted on what troops at Judah and in other eastern provinces, he can rely on when he first uttered the words of the oath Vitellius and called on he mercy of the gods, the legionnaires listened to him in silence, and it was clear that they are willing to rise up immediately ... but not easy to decide on this matter, as a civil war, and Vespasian hesitated, then igniting hopes, then again and again turning over in his mind all the possible obstacles . Two sons in the prime of life, sixty years of his life behind him - surely come a day when all this is necessary to give to the will of blind chance, military luck? .. Before someone goes to fight for imperial power, only one choice - to rise to the top or falling into the abyss "(Tats. East. II, 73-74)

Vespasian could expect at this time to support nine legions stood in Judea, Syria and Egypt. Especially encouraged Vespasian to the seizure of power by the governor of Syria Mutsian that "different wealth and love of luxury, used to surround themselves with splendor, from a private person unseen, it is a good command of the word, was experienced in politics, understood in business and able to anticipate their outcome" (Tats . East. II, 5).

The first decisive step was taken by the governor of Egypt, Tiberius Alexander, 1 July 69 he led his legions stationed in Alexandria, sworn in as the emperor Vespasian July 11 Vespasian swore his legions in Judaea. It happened all of this, according to Tacitus (see para. II of the East, 79), suddenly, for all the enthusiasm of the soldiers I decided. "Sam Vsspasian in these new and unusual circumstances remained the same as before - without the slightest importance, without any arrogance. Hardly passed the first excitement, dense fog shrouded the eyes of everyone who goes to the top of the power, he turned to the army with a few words, simple and harsh military "(Tats. East. II of, 80).

Immediately recognized Vespasian`s legions in Syria, as well as the Soham king Sophene (South-Western Armenia), Anti-oh, king of Commagene (on the upper Euphrates), Herod Agrippa II Junior, the ruler of part of Syria and the North-East of Palestine, and the queen Bersnika, his sister, "a young and beautiful, it is even the old Vespasian fascinated courtesy and luxury gifts, all coastal provinces up to the Asian borders and Achaia (Greece), and all internal, up to the Pontus (Black sea) and Armenia swore allegiance to Vespasian" ( Tats. East. II, 81)

"Preparations for the war started with Vespasian that scored recruits and called in the army veterans, the most prosperous city requested to host the production of weapons workshops in Antioch began to mint gold and silver coins These measures are carried out quickly on the ground by special proxies. Vespasian was shown everywhere, all the cheering, praising people who are honest and active, confused and weak taught by example, only occasionally resorting to punishment, sought not to detract from the dignity of their friends, and their shortcomings .. As to the monetary gift to the soldiers, then Mutsian at the first gathering has warned that it will be very moderate, and Vespasian promised troops for participation in the civil war is not more than the others to pay them for service in peacetime, he was an implacable opponent senseless generosity to the soldiers, so the army had always been better than others "(Tats. East. II, 82).

Vespasian took care of the security of the eastern borders of the Roman Empire, sending messengers to the Parthians and Armenians, and he went to Alexandria. The city of Rome has received the bread of Egypt, and now depended on Vespasian: give bread to the capital of the empire, or hunger to force her into submission.

On the side of Vespasian passed as Roman troops stationed in Illyria, Dalmatia, Moesia and Pannonia (territory of the Eastern Adriatic and Hungary). In Pannonia Vespasian warmly supported commander Antonio Primo, who "was a dashing swordsman, a glib tongue, master wreak havoc, clever instigator of strife and rebellion, and the robber waster, in time of peace intolerable, but useful to the war" (Tats. East. II, 86).

Both the Roman fleet, Ravenna and Mizensky also recognized Vsspasiana.

"Provinces shook from the thunder of weapons, gait legions movement of fleets" (Tats. East. II of, 84).

Vespasian`s success is due to the fact that it supported the slave-owning aristocracy of the Eastern Roman provinces, which sought equal rights with the Roman aristocracy; Civil War I in. BC. and the years of terror under the emperors of the first half I in. BC It destroyed much of the old Roman aristocracy, and now, with the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, provincial feel to know your strength and longed to make the owner of such a person in Rome, which would correspond to its interests. It was so Vespaspan, neznatny, sensible, hard-fisted, cool and topped with military glory.

Although Vsspasiana recognized as legions in Africa, Spain and Gaul, it is nevertheless not in a hurry to Rome. The troops on Rome led his supporters Mutsian, Antonio Primo and others.

At the end of October 69 Vitellius forces were defeated in the battle of Cremona; Rome in December, was taken by storm.

"Vitellius was killed; the war is over, but the world did not come. Winners, full of insatiable rage, with arms around the city pursued the vanquished; littered with corpses everywhere; markets and temples were covered with blood. Please kill those who by chance came to hand, but grew rampant, flaviantsy soon began ransacking the house and drag out who had taken refuge there. Anyone who paid attention to themselves or tall youth, lists you a warrior or a resident of Rome, immediately killed. At first, the winners still remembered for his hostility to the vanquished, and only longed for blood, but soon retreated to hate greed.

Under the pretext that people can hide at vitelliantsev, flaviantsy banned anything to hide or lock and began to break into the house, killing all who resisted. Among the poor plebeians and the most despicable slaves there were those that have given their rich owners, others betrayed friends. It seemed as if the city captured by the enemy; everywhere raced groans and lamentations; people regretfully remembered brazen antics soldiers Otho and Vitellius, makes them at the time such hatred. Leaders flavianskoy parties failed to ignite a civil war, but were unable to cope with the victorious soldiers: during unrest and turmoil worse than the person, the easier it is to prevail; The rules in peacetime can only honest and decent people "(Tats. East. IV, 1).

Rome actually ended up in the hands of Antonio Primo, who behaved in a captured Imperial Palace as host.

Vsspasian and his eldest son Titus, who were outside of Rome, have received from the Senate office of the consuls; the younger son of Vespasian, Domitian was in Rome, he took up residence in the palace, and took the title Caesar sat in complete inaction, "he was like a son princeps (emperor) only its shameful and dissolute adventures" (East Tats.. IV of, 2).

"Between Senators dominated strife, the defeated concealed malice in my heart, no one respected the winners, the laws were not respected, Princeps (Emperor) was away from Rome. Such was the situation when (in January `70) Mutsian entered the city and immediately sosredotochilvsyu power in their hands. He dismissed the Minister Antonio Primo ... Mutsiana constantly surrounded by armed soldiers, he lived every day in the new palace, constantly changed some gardens on the other, and his whole appearance, gait, accompanied everywhere by his bodyguards showed that he somehow is true princeps (Emperor), although it does not agree to accept this title "(Tats. East. IV, II).

Mutsianu managed to restore order in Rome, and he was smart enough not to enter into competition with Vespasian.

In the summer of `70 Vespasian finally arrived in Rome; the best part of his army, he left Judea and handed over command to his son Titus, who in the spring of the same year began the siege of Jerusalem.

His entry into Rome Vsspasian signaled that saved him from starvation; previously he had sent from Egypt to the imperial capital ships with grain, and when they arrived, they found that the town had grain reserves barely ten days.

According to Tacitus (East I, 50.) Vespasian - single emperor, whose power has changed for the better, not the worse, he possessed great tolerance and listening to every word of truth (Tats Op 8..).

"Gracious he was to all estates: Senators deposited their condition, needs consular (former consul) appointed for five hundred thousand sesterces a year, many cities throughout the land built up even better after the earthquake and fires of the talents and skills showed the greatest concern" - that Suetonius describes him (see .: Weesp. 17).

Vespasian succeeded in establishing good relations with the Senate, which was a stronghold of the ancient Roman aristocracy, as well as with the provincial nobility.

As censor in 73, he revised the lists of senators and knights, someone at his discretion exclude a worthy people from among the inhabitants of Italy and the provinces introduced in the Senate and vsadnichestva.

Vespasian restored order among the troops and raised the discipline. The rebels during the civil war in Gaul Batavians were pacified, Jerusalem was taken, with a dangerous Parthia succeeded in establishing peaceful relations.

Vespasian was very concerned about the security of the borders of the Roman dominions, nothing escaped from his field of vision, he showed concern for the safety of even the distant Iberian (Georgian) King Mithridates, an ally of Rome, and commanded to build (or thoroughly restore) to his fortress near Mtskheta, the ancient capital Iberia (Georgia), which was done, as is the story found in the XIX century on the territory of Mtskheta Greek inscription, which is now on display in the Historical Museum of the city of Tbilisi.

Vespasian patron of Spain, Gaul and Africa, to the detriment of the Eastern Mediterranean countries, it is deprived of independence Greece, which received it from Nero for having diligently applauded his performances in the theater.

The Greeks were unhappy with Vespasian, and Cynic philosophers began to defame him in every way, for which he had been expelled from Rome in 71 g; both were expelled and astrologers

Vespasian had the glory of a righteous man. According to Suetonius (. Weesp 15), "it never appeared that executed an innocent - except that in his absence, without his knowledge or against his will." He was not vindictive and vengeful. Even during the time of Nero he was once denied by the court, and when he is in turmoil began to ask where to go as it is now, insolent palace servant said, so he cleaned away. After becoming emperor, Vespasian met insolent, and when he humbly begged forgiveness, he also sent him on all four sides. A Cynic philosopher treated disrespectfully and even Vespasian barked at him, but the mighty Emperor contented himself called him a dog (see .: Light. Weesp. 13-14).

Contemporaries reproached Vespasian only one vice - in stinginess.

He imposed heavy taxes on the province, increasing their sometimes twice, and have sharpened in the introduction of new taxes. He even managed to earn income from the public restrooms. His own son Titus openly resented this unheard-of innovation. When Vespasian was the first profit, he put his nose Titus coin and asked if she smells like, hence the well-known phrase "money does not smell."

According to Suetonius (Weesp. 16), "he openly involved in such cases, which would be a shame, and a private person. He bought things only to later sell them at a profit, he did not hesitate to sell positions to applicants and justify the defendants, innocent and guilty, without discrimination; the most predatory officials believed he deliberately promoted pas increasingly high places, to give them cash, and then sue, - said he uses them like a sponge getting wet gives dry and wet squeezes. "

This behavior Vespasian, likely obyasnyalos