Citizenship: United Kingdom
Cameron, Marine Lieutenant and polyglot, in 1872, went to East Africa to help Livingstone. In February 1873 he landed on the shore of the mainland in Bagamoyo (opposite Zanzibar), and in March was made to the west with a small group, of which entered Bida Wadi Asman - conductor Livingstone and Stanley`s expeditions.
In October 1873 in Tabor expedition Cameron met en route to Zanzibar caravan with Livingstone`s body. Making sure that aid it was too late, Cameron sent his two-English companions to accompany the remains of the traveler to the shore, he decided to continue their journey to the west and in mid-February 1874, after passing the boundless plains with occasional hills, came to Tanganyika in Ujiji village.
Skirting the lake from the south, Cameron initiated the opening Mitumba mountains. A 3 May 1874 the traveler found flowing from the lake, on the western side, the river lukuga river. Place exit flow Tanganyika - the subject of so much speculation and conjecture - was quite close to the island Kasenga, which even in 1858 and visited Speke who later visited when traveling through Lake Livingston. Cameron followed lukuga river for several kilometers downstream. Aware of the value of his discovery, he broke the study off the coast of Tanganyika (although initially intended to drive around the entire lake all around), and hurried back to Ujiji to immediately send a message to Europe about the results of his voyage. He shot Tanganyika stretches for 720 kilometers (istinnayadlina about 650 kilometers). Then Cameron returned to lukuga river. Special doubt where flows the river, he did not have: the stories of local residents, and all that is already known about the hydrographic region located to the west of Tanganyika, it has shown that it can fall only in Lualaba.
Cameron was able to map the sources of a number of rivers, including Lomami, Lvembe, Lubilasha and Lulwa. In the area of ??the origins of this last river, he came into the territory, already known to geographers through research Livingstone and Magyar. In October 1876 Cameron arrived in Bie and after a particularly heavy (due to famine raging in the country) go to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean November 7, 1875 completed its crossing of Africa in Catumbela north of Benguela.
Coming 5800 kilometers Cameron made the first historically proven the intersection of Central Africa from east to west: his predecessors moved in the opposite direction. Throughout this transcontinental raid, described it in a two-volume book "Through Africa" ??(London, 1877), Cameron conducted a thorough route survey, made several hundred astronomical determinations of longitudes and latitudes, and measured the altitude of more than 3700 items (and thus for the first time framework for the creation of the hypsometric map of Central Africa) has been provided. Because fundamentally important geographical results of the expedition Cameron apart survey southern Tanganyika and opening lukuga river should be noted a significant refinement of ideas about the Lualaba hydrographic network. Cameron found out that the two rivers, which merge formed Lualaba, connected not lower Nyangve is believed Livingston, and is much higher than this point. It turned out that the eastern of the river flowing from Lake Mweru is called Louvois, Western same name as the combined river below the confluence, Lualaba and Kamolondo. Come down to Livingston rumors about the "lake Kamolondo" attitude, seems to be located in a valley of the river is not too large chain of lakes, of which Cameron personally seen Kisale. On the map drawn up by Cameron featured almost all of any significant tributaries of the upper Lualaba; correctly indicated, in particular, the place of its confluence with the Lufiry which Livingstone erroneously believed the influx of "Lualaba Webb," ie, Louvois. Generally the flow top Lualaba configuration transferred to the Cameron map is strikingly true, though he saw the river only in one place, and then only from a distance; This demonstrates the high accuracy of oral information, received from the Arab-Swahili traders.
Crowbars, which Livingstone identified with "Western Lualaba", "Lualaba Young" was an independent river flowing in a northerly direction parallel to the Lualaba and empties into it somewhere below Nyangve; while Cameron was able to personally track of its current location and to establish its origins. Passing along the watershed, bounded on the west basin of the upper Lualaba, he became convinced of the impossibility of direct hydrographic connection between her and Kasai. Less accurate was the information collected about them during the Lualaba between its confluence with Louvois and Nyangve: on his map below shows the merger nonexistent lake Lange.
Having the right information about what Lualaba is the upper reaches of the Congo, Cameron, however, remained in the dark about a great arc that describes the river in its middle reaches, and "turned" it on his map to the west directly from Nyangve.
Apart from its own field investigations Cameron and collected their geographic information necessary to mention also the small importance of his theoretical contribution to the solution of the major problems of geography of Central Africa. He formulated the hypothesis and convincingly argued that the catchment basin of the Congo must be placed on both sides of the equator.
"This great river, - wrote about the Lualaba Cameron - should be one of the sources of the Congo, for where else this giant among rivers, conceding on volume flow only Amazon could get those two million cubic feet of water, which he continually pours each ? second in the Atlantic Large tributaries from the north would explain the relatively weak rise Congo level near the coast, for as her huge pool stretches on both sides of the equator, some part of it is always in the rain zone, and therefore the power of the main river all the time about the same. "
From this deep right view, Cameron first suggested that open Schweinfurt Uele can be tributary of the Congo.